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International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2011, Article ID 537528, 11 pages
Review Article

Issues Raised Involving the Copper Hypotheses in the Causation of Alzheimer's Disease

1Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
3Adeona Pharmaceuticals, Ann Arbor, MI 48103, USA

Received 2 April 2011; Revised 4 June 2011; Accepted 10 June 2011

Academic Editor: Rosanna Squitti

Copyright © 2011 George J. Brewer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


I present evidence that the epidemic of Alzheimer's disease is a new phenomenon exploding in the latter part of the 20th century in developed countries. I postulate that a major causative factor in the epidemic is the coincident use of copper plumbing, and the ingestion of inorganic copper leaching from the copper plumbing. I present evidence to support this hypothesis and discuss various objections and criticisms that have been raised about the hypothesis, and my responses to these criticisms. I conclude that the hypothesis is well supported by the evidence and deserves serious consideration, because if it is valid, it indentifies a partially preventable cause of Alzheimer's disease.