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International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2011, Article ID 564321, 7 pages
Review Article

Biomarkers of the Dementia

Department of Neurology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifucho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8216, Japan

Received 20 January 2011; Accepted 30 March 2011

Academic Editor: Katsuya Urakami

Copyright © 2011 Mikio Shoji. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Recent advances in biomarker studies on dementia are summarized here. CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are the most sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prediction of onset of AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Based on this progress, new diagnostic criteria for AD, MCI, and preclinical AD were proposed by National Institute of Aging (NIA) and Alzheimer's Association in August 2010. In these new criteria, progress in biomarker identification and amyloid imaging studies in the past 10 years have added critical information. Huge contributions of basic and clinical studies have established clinical evidence supporting these markers. Based on this progress, essential therapy for cure of AD is urgently expected.