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International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 654794, 9 pages
Research Article

Combining Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroencephalography May Contribute to Assess the Severity of Alzheimer's Disease

1Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, POB 1777, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
2Department of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
3Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
4Nexstim Ltd, 00510 Helsinki, Finland
5Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
6Department of Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland

Received 30 December 2010; Revised 3 March 2011; Accepted 13 March 2011

Academic Editor: Fabio Ferrarelli

Copyright © 2011 Petro Julkunen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of old age dementia, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often precedes AD. In our previous study (Julkunen et al. 2008), we found that the combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) was able to find distinct differences in AD and MCI patients as compared to controls. Here, we reanalyzed the small sample data from our previous study with the aim to test the sensitivity of the TMS-EEG characteristics to discriminate control subjects ( ) from MCI ( ) and AD ( ) subjects. Furthermore, we investigated how the TMS-EEG response characteristics related to the scores of the dementia rating scales used to evaluate the severity of cognitive decline in these subjects. We found that the TMS-EEG response P30 amplitude correlated with cognitive decline and showed good specificity and sensitivity in identifying healthy subjects from those with MCI or AD. Given the small sample size, further studies may be needed to confirm the results.