Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 381974, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/381974
Research Article

Centella asiatica Extract Improves Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Investigation of a Possible Mechanism of Action

1Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
2Department of Neurology, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR 97239, USA

Received 1 August 2011; Accepted 26 October 2011

Academic Editor: Abdu Adem

Copyright © 2012 Amala Soumyanath et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Kapoor, Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1990.
  2. C. A. Newall, L. Anderson, and J. D. Phillipson, Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals, Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK, 1996.
  3. M. H. V. Kumar and Y. K. Gupta, “Effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica on cognition and markers of oxidative stress in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 253–260, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. H. Veerendra Kumar and Y. K. Gupta, “Effect of Centella asiatica on cognition and oxidative stress in an intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of Alzheimer's disease in rats,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 30, no. 5-6, pp. 336–342, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. K. Gupta, M. H. Veerendra Kumar, and A. K. Srivastava, “Effect of Centella asiatica on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling, cognition and oxidative stress in rats,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 579–585, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. B. Rao, M. Chetana, and P. U. Devi, “Centella asiatica treatment during postnatal period enhances learning and memory in mice,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 449–457, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. R. Gadahad, M. Rao, and G. Rao, “Enhancement of hippocampal CA3 neuronal dendritic arborization by Centella asiatica (Linn) fresh leaf extract treatment in adult rats,” Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. G. Mohandas Rao, S. Muddanna Rao, and S. Gurumadhva Rao, “Centella asiatica (L.) leaf extract treatment during the growth spurt period enhances hippocampal CA3 neuronal dendritic arborization in rats,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 349–357, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Hsiao, “Transgenic mice expressing Alzheimer amyloid precursor proteins,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 33, no. 7-8, pp. 883–889, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Hsiao, P. Chapman, S. Nilsen et al., “Correlative memory deficits, Aβ elevation, and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice,” Science, vol. 274, no. 5284, pp. 99–102, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Calon, G. P. Lim, F. Yang et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model,” Neuron, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 633–645, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. P. Lim, F. Yang, T. Chu et al., “Ibuprofen effects on Alzheimer pathology and open field activity in APPsw transgenic mice,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 983–991, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. W. Stackman, F. Eckenstein, B. Frei, D. Kulhanek, J. Nowlin, and J. F. Quinn, “Prevention of age-related spatial memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by chronic Ginkgo biloba treatment,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 510–520, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Wagner, Plant Drug Analysis: A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1996.
  15. R. G. Morris, P. Garrud, J. N. Rawlins, and J. O'Keefe, “Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions,” Nature, vol. 297, no. 5868, pp. 681–683, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Quinn, D. Kulhanek, J. Nowlin et al., “Chronic melatonin therapy fails to alter amyloid burden or oxidative damage in old Tg2576 mice: implications for clinical trials,” Brain Research, vol. 1037, no. 1-2, pp. 209–213, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. W. Stackman, F. Eckenstein, B. Frei, D. Kulhanek, J. Nowlin, and J. F. Quinn, “Prevention of age-related spatial memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by chronic Ginkgo biloba treatment,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 510–520, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. F. Quinn, J. R. Bussiere, R. S. Hammond et al., “Chronic dietary α-lipoic acid reduces deficits in hippocampal memory of aged Tg2576 mice,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 213–225, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Wilson, “Cytotoxicity and viability assays,” in Animal Cell Culture: A Practical Approach, R. Freshney, Ed., pp. 263–303, IRL Press, Oxford, UK, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  20. B. L. Sopher, K. I. Fukuchi, T. J. Kavanagh, C. E. Furlong, and G. M. Martin, “Neurodegenerative mechanisms in Alzheimer disease: a role for oxidative damage in amyloid β protein precursor-mediated cell death,” Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology, vol. 29, no. 2-3, pp. 153–168, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. L. Woltjer, W. McMahan, D. Milatovic et al., “Effects of chemical chaperones on oxidative stress and detergent-insoluble species formation following conditional expression of amyloid precursor protein carboxy-terminal fragment,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 427–437, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. L. Woltjer, I. Maezawa, J. J. Ou, K. S. Montine, and T. J. Montine, “Advanced glycation endproduct precursor alters intracellular amyloid-β/AβPP carboxy-terminal fragment aggregation and cytotoxicity,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 467–476, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. L. Wadsworth, T. L. McDonald, and D. R. Koop, “Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and quercetin on lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling pathways involved in the release of tumor necrosis factor-α,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 963–974, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. L. Wadsworth and D. R. Koop, “Effects of the wine polyphenolics quercetin and resveratrol on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 941–949, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. L. Ellman, K. D. Courtney, V. Andres Jr., and R. M. Featherstone, “A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 88–95, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Dhanasekaran, L. A. Holcomb, A. R. Hitt et al., “Centella asiatica extract selectively decreases amyloid β levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease animal model,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Holcomb, M. N. Gordon, E. Mcgowan et al., “Accelerated Alzheimer-type phenotype in transgenic mice carrying both mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 transgenes,” Nature Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 97–100, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. N. Tariot and H. J. Federoff, “Current treatment for Alzheimer disease and future prospects,” Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, vol. 17, 4, pp. S105–S113, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. N. Tariot, M. R. Farlow, G. T. Grossberg, S. M. Graham, S. McDonald, and I. Gergel, “Memantine treatment in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease already receiving donepezil: a randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 3, pp. 317–324, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. Reisberg, R. Doody, A. Stöffler, F. Schmitt, S. Ferris, and H. J. Möbius, “Memantine in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 14, pp. 1333–1341, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. “A study in semagacestat for Alzheimer's patients (Identity XT),” http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01035138.
  32. F. Panza, V. Frisardi, B. P. Imbimbo et al., “Bapineuzumab: anti-β-amyloid monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,” Immunotherapy, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 767–782, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Brinkhaus, M. Lindner, C. Hentschel et al., “Centella asiatica in traditional and modern phytomedicine—a pharmacological and clinical profile—part I: botany chemistry, preparations,” Perfusion, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 466–474, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  34. J. T. James and I. A. Dubery, “Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the medicinal herb, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban,” Molecules, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 3922–3941, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Soumyanath, Y. P. Zhong, S. A. Gold et al., “Centella asiatica accelerates nerve regeneration upon oral administration and contains multiple active fractions increasing neurite elongation in-vitro,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1221–1229, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. K. Lee, S. R. Kim, S. H. Sung et al., “Asiatic acid derivatives protect cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity,” Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology, vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 75–86, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  37. S.-S. Jew, C.-H. Yoo, D.-Y. Lim et al., “Structure-activity relationship study of asiatic acid derivatives against β amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 119–121, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  38. I. Mook-Jung, J. E. Shin, H. S. Yun et al., “Protective effects of asiaticoside derivatives against β-amyloid neurotoxicity,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 417–425, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  39. M. Bajpai, A. Pande, S. K. Tewari, and D. Prakash, “Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 287–291, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Allegra, “Comparative capillaroscopic study of some bioflavonoids and total triterpene fraction of Centella asiatica in venous insufficiency,” Clinica Terapeutica, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 555–559, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. Prum, B. Illel, and J. Raynaud, “The flavonoid glycosides from Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae),” Pharmazie, vol. 38, no. 6, p. 423, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. V. R. Appa Rao, K. Srinivasan, and T. Koteswara Rao, “The effect of Mandookaparni (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children,” Journal of Research in Indian Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 9–16, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. Wattanathorn, L. Mator, S. Muchimapura et al., “Positive modulation of cognition and mood in the healthy elderly volunteer following the administration of Centella asiatica,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 325–332, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. D. O. Dev, S. Mohamed, Z. Hambali, and B. A. Samah, “Comparison on cognitive effects of Centella asiatica in healthy middle age female and male volunteers,” European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 553–565, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Tiwari, S. Singh, K. Patwardhan, S. Gehlot, and I. S. Gambhir, “Effect of Centella asiatica on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and other common age-related clinical problems,” Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 215–220, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  46. J. B. Harborne and H. Baxter, The Handbook of Natural Flavonoids. Vol 1 and 2, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1999.