Table 2: Characteristics for pairs where at least one twin was a musician ( pairs1).

Cases ()Controls ()Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI for crude model

Age (years) (66–89) (66–89)
Women11 (40.7)10 (37)
Men16 (59.3)17 (63)
Education (years) (6–16) (6–16)OR = 0.96 (0.9, 1.1)
Physical activity2 (0–3) (0–3)OR = 0.6* (0.5, 0.8)
Musicians10 (37)21 (78)OR = 0.35* (0.14, 0.9)
Zygotic status
 Monozygotic3 (11.1)
 Same-sex dizygotic14 (51.9)
 Opposite sex dizygotic9 (33.3)
 Indeterminate1 (3.7)
Clinical diagnoses
 Dementia16 (59.3)
 Cognitive impairment 11 (40.7)
 Cognitively intact27 (100)

Data are (%) or means ± SD (range).
1There were 31 musicians in the sample. In 4 pairs, both twins were musicians.
2Physical activity was assessed using a 0–3 scale, where 0 is no activity and 3 is frequent activity.
.