Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering
Volume 2015, Article ID 672423, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/672423
Review Article

A Review of Wind Tunnel Based Virtual Flight Testing Techniques for Evaluation of Flight Control Systems

Science and Technology on Scramjet Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073, China

Received 8 June 2015; Revised 30 August 2015; Accepted 18 October 2015

Academic Editor: Paolo Tortora

Copyright © 2015 Min Huang and Zhong-wei Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. E. Manning, C. L. Ratliff, and E. J. Marquart, “Bridging the gap between ground and flight tests: virtual flight testing (VFT),” in Proceedings of the 1st AIAA Aircraft Engineering, Technology, AIAA-95-3875, 1995.
  2. M. Bacic and M. MacDiarmid, “Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of aerodynamic objects,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, AIAA 2007-6465, Hilton Head, SC, USA, August 2007.
  3. F. Boria, B. Stanford, S. Bowman, and P. Ifju, “Evolutionary optimization of a morphing wing with wind-tunnel hardware in the loop,” AIAA Journal, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 399–409, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. R. Gans, W. E. Dixon, R. Lind, and A. Kurdila, “A hardware in the loop simulation platform for vision-based control of unmanned air vehicles,” Mechatronics, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1043–1056, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Liu, L. Wang, and X. Tan, “Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM,” Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 112–120, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. L. Ratliff and E. J. Marquart, “An assessment of a potential test technique: virtual flight testing (VFT),” in Proceedings of the AIAA Flight Simulation Technologies Conference, AIAA-95-3415, 1995.
  7. D. B. Owens, J. M. Brandon, M. A. Croom, C. M. Fremaux, E. H. Heim, and D. D. Vicroy, “Overview of dynamic test techniques for flight dynamics research at NASA LaRC,” in Proceedings of the 25th AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, AIAA 2006-3146, 2006.
  8. R. A. Kilgore and B. T. Averett, “A forced-oscillation method for dynamic-stability testing,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 304–305, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  9. G. E. Burt, “A forced-oscillation test mechanism for measuring dynamic-stability derivatives in roll,” in Proceedings of the 12th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA-74-86, 1974.
  10. L. E. Ericsson and M. E. Beyers, “Wind-tunnel aerodynamics in rotary tests of combat aircraft models,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 521–528, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. J. Piatak and C. S. Cleckner, “A new forced oscillation capability for the transonic dynamics tunnel,” in Proceedings of the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA 2002-0171, 2002.
  12. G. Hoe, D. B. Owens, and C. Denham, “Forced oscillation wind tunnel testing for FASER flight research aircraft,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA 2012-4645, 2012.
  13. D. Regodić, M. Samardžić, and G. Grubor, “Review of the roll-damping, measurements in the T-38 wind tunnel,” Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1–6, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  14. A. S. Pototzky and P. C. Murphy, “Roll damping derivatives from generalized lifting-surface theory and wind tunnel forced-oscillation tests,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA 2014-0731, 2014.
  15. J. Kalviste, “Use of rotary balance and forced oscillation test data in a six degrees of freedom simulation,” in Proceedings of the AIAA 9th Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA-82-1364, 1982.
  16. W. B. Blake, “A study of the rotary balance technique for predicting pitch damping,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA-93-3619-CP, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. G. N. Malcolm, B. R. Kramer, and C. J. Suhrez, “US/UK rotary-balance test comparisons with a generic fighter model,” in Proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA 94-0196, 1994.
  18. W. J. Gillard, “Innovative control effectors (configuration 101) dynamic wind tunnel test report. Rotary balance and forced oscillation tests,” Air Force Research Lab Wright-Patterson AFB OH Air Vehicles Directorate AFRL-VA-WP-TR-1998-3043, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. L. Morris, “Utilization of a free oscillation wind tunnel model in conjunction with an analog computer to determine the dynamic stability derivatives,” in Proceedings of the 2nd AIAA Aerodynamic Testing Conference, AIAA-66-770, 1966.
  20. K. F. Stetson and F. M. Sawyer, “A comparison of hypersonic wind tunnel data obtained by static and free oscillation techniques,” in Proceedings of the AIAA 10th Fluid & Plasmadynamics Conference, AIAA-77-690, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 1977.
  21. T. Yoshinaga, K. Inoue, and A. Tate, “Determination of the pitching characteristics of tumbling bodies by the free-rotation method,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. M. Howard, T. R. DeMoss, D. D. Lack, and R. B. Caldwell, “Tumbling susceptibility of a tailless unmanned air vehicle,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference and Exhibit, AIAA 2002-4615, Monterey, Calif, USA, 2002.
  23. F. J. Capone, D. Bruce Owens, and R. M. Hall, “Development of a transonic free-to-roll test capability,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 456–463, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. B. Owens, J. K. McConnell, J. M. Brandon, and R. M. Hall, “Transonic free-to-roll analysis of the F-35 (joint strike fighter) aircraft,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 608–615, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Tang and E. H. Dowell, “Effects of a free-to-roll fuselage on wing flutter: theory and experiment,” AIAA Journal, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2625–2632, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. C. Boisseau, “Flight investigation of dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/10-scale model of a variable-wing-sweep fighter airplane configuration,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA TM X-1367, NASA, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  27. S. B. Grafton and J. R. Cbamber, “Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a model of a spin-resistant fighter configuration,” NASA TN D-7716, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1974. View at Google Scholar
  28. L. P. Parlett, “Free-flight wind-tunnel investigation of four engine swept wing upper-surface blown transport configuration,” NASA TN D-8479, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1977. View at Google Scholar
  29. D. G. Murri, L. T. Nguyen, and S. B. Grafton, “Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a model of a forward-swept-wing fighter configuration,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA TP-2230, NASA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  30. J. M. Brandon, J. M. Simon, D. B. Owens, and J. S. Kiddy, “Free-flight investigation of fore-body blowing for stability and control,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA-96-3444, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1996.
  31. Y. Kikmoto and O. Kobayasgi, “Free flight of airplane in wind tunnel,” in Proceedings of the Aircraft Symposium, 2000.
  32. P. W. Gregory and A. A. David, “X-35B STOVL flight control law design and flying qualities,” in Proceedings of the Biennial International Powered Lift Conference and Exhibit, AIAA 2002-6018, Williamsburg, VA, USA, November 2002.
  33. H. Sakata and O. Kobayasgi, “Free flight of airplane in wind tunnel (second report),” in Proceedings of the Aircraft Symposium, 2003.
  34. E. B. Jackson and C. W. Buttrill, Control Laws for a Wind Tunnel Free-Flight Study of a Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2006.
  35. A. S. Platou, “The wind tunnel free flight testing technique,” in Proceedings of the AIAA 3rd Aerodynamic Testing Conference, AIAA-68-388, 1968.
  36. D. E. Hahne, T. R. Wendel, and J. R. Boland, “Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a supersonic persistence fighter,” NASA Technical Paper 3258, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1993. View at Google Scholar
  37. T. Hideyuki, K. Tomoyuki, S. Kazuo et al., “Free-flight force measurement technique in shock tunnel,” in Proceedings of the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (AIAA '12), AIAA 2012-1241, Nashville, Tenn, USA, January 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. J. Laurence, J. M. Schramm, and K. Hannemann, “Force and moment measurements on a free-flying capsule model in a high-enthalpy shock tunnel,” in Proceedings of the 28th Aerodynamic Measurement Technology, Ground Testing, and Flight Testing Conference, AIAA 2012-2861, New Orleans, La, USA, June 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. N. R. Mudford, S. O’Byrne, A. Neely, D. Buttsworth, and S. Balage, “Hypersonic wind-tunnel free-flying experiments with onboard instrumentation,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 231–242, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. D. Owens, Spin-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/28-Scale Model of the LTV YA-7F Airplane, (NASA CR-198225), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1995.
  41. C. M. Fremaux, D. M. Vairo, and R. D. Whipple, “Effect of geometry and mass distribution on tumbling characteristics of flying wings,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 404–410, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. E. Sisle, “Analysis and evaluation of patriot guidance and control,” in Proceedings of the Guidance and Control Conference, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1976.
  43. Y. Sakai, S. Suzuki, M. Miwa, and T. Tsuchiya, “Flight test evaluation of non-linear dynamic inversion controller,” in Proceedings of the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA 2008-209, Reno, Nev, USA, January 2008.
  44. N. Dadkhah and B. Mettler, “Control system design and evaluation for robust autonomous rotorcraft guidance,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1488–1506, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Suzuki and Y. Matsumoto, “Development of flight simulation program for the HYFLEX vehicle and flight analysis,” National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan NAL TR-1317, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  46. J. Georgie and J. Valasek, “Evaluation of longitudinal desired dynamics for dynamic-inversion controlled generic reentry vehicles,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 811–819, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Janardanan and M. Jayakumar, “Robust longitudinal flight controller design for a hypersonic re-entry vehicle,” in Proceedings of the 14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference (AIAA '06), AIAA 2006-8076, 2006.
  48. E. R. Mueller, “Hardware-in-the-loop simulation design for evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle control systems,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, AIAA 2007-6569, Hilton Head, SC, USA, August 2007.
  49. S. Suresh and N. Kannan, “Direct adaptive neural flight control system for an unstable unmanned aircraft,” Applied Soft Computing Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 937–948, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. F. Wang, P. P. Menon, and D. G. Bates, “Verification and validation of attitude and orbit control systems for flexible satellites,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, AIAA 2009-5953, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2009.
  51. P. P. Menon, I. Postlethwaite, S. Bennani, A. Marcos, and D. G. Bates, “Robustness analysis of a reusable launch vehicle flight control law,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 751–765, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. D. Joos and H. Pfifer, “Robust flight control system design verification and validation by multiobjective worst-case search,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, AIAA 2012-4998, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, August 2012.
  53. Y. C. Paw and G. J. Balas, “Development and application of an integrated framework for small UAV flight control development,” Mechatronics, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 789–802, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. I. Prodan, S. Olaru, R. Bencatel, J. Borges de Sousa, C. Stoica, and S.-I. Niculescu, “Receding horizon flight control for trajectory tracking of autonomous aerial vehicles,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1334–1349, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. E. Sisle and R. Baldwin, “Guidance system evaluation techniques for SAM-D,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance and Control Conference, AIAA-73-877, Key Biscayne, Fla, USA, 1973.
  56. H. L. Pastrick, C. M. Will, L. Isom, A. Jolly, L. Hazel, and R. Vinson, “Hardware-in-the-loop simulation: a guidance system optimization tool,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Conference, AIAA-74-929, Huntsville, Ala, USA, 1974.
  57. R. M. Gravitz and W. F. Waite, “Validation methodologies for complex, hybrid, HWIL, 6DOF missile simulations—a structured approach,” in Proceedings of the 20th Conference on Winter Simulation, pp. 775–782, IEEE, December 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. J. Kouchiyama, Y. Funo, S. Ogawa, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and K. Hasegawa, “Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for TR-I rocket roll control system,” in Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium, AIAA-89-3623-CP, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 1989.
  59. M. E. Sisle and E. D. McCarthy, “Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for an active missile,” Simulation, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 159–167, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. Jackson and A. N. Vamivakas, “An overview of hardware-in-the-loop simulations for missile,” in Proceedings of the AIAA GNC, AFM, and MST Conference and Exhibit, AIAA-97-37356, Austin, Tex, USA, 1997.
  61. S. K. Chaudhuri, G. Venkatachalam, and M. Prabhakar, “Hardware-in-loop simulation for missile guidance and control systems,” Defence Science Journal, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 343–356, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. Eguchi, K. Obana, and M. Kamiya, “Hardware-in-the-Loop missile simulation facility,” in Proceedings of the Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing III, R. L. Murrer, Ed., vol. 3368 of Proceedings of SPIE, July 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. K. Ćosić, I. Kopriva, T. Kostić, M. Slamić, and M. Volarević, “Design and implementation of a hardware-in-the-loop simulator for a semi-automatic guided missile system,” Simulation Practice and Theory, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 107–123, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. X. Y. Yang, J. Y. Wang, and H. L. Luo, “A hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform of an imaging ATR missile,” in Proceedings of the Asia Simulation Conference, 7th International Conference on System Simulation and Scientific Computing, (ICSC '08), pp. 545–550, IEEE, Beijing, China, October 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. W. C. Filllo, L. R. Mallacot, and D. S. Carrijo, “Hardware in the loop simulation of an attitude control system,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, AIAA-99-4323, Portland, Ore, USA, August 1999.
  66. P. Tobbe, A. Matras, D. Walker et al., “Real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation of ares i launch vehicle,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, AIAA 2009-6130, Chicago, Ill, USA, August 2009.
  67. W. B. Huang and Q. Zhang, “The hardware-in-the-loop simulation on the control system of a small launch vehicle,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 29, pp. 1867–1871, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. S. A. Kowalchuk, “Model-based design strategies for real-time hardware-in-the-loop rocket system simulations,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, AIAA 2012-4627, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 2012.
  69. J. S. Jang and C. J. Tomlin, “Autopilot design for the Stanford DragonFly UAV: validation through hardware-in-the-loop simulation,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, AIAA 2001-4179, Montreal, Canada, August 2001.
  70. B. Kim, E. Velenis, P. Kriengsiri, and P. Tsiotras, “Designing a low-cost spacecraft simulator,” IEEE Control Systems Magazine, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 26–37, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. Y. Sakai, S. Suzuki, M. Miwa, T. Tsuchiya, K. Masui, and H. Tomita, “Flight test evaluation of non-linear dynamic inversion controller,” in Proceedings of the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA 2008-209, Reno, Nev, USA, January 2008.
  72. O. Toupet and B. Mettler, “Design and flight test evaluation of guidance system for autonomous rotorcraft,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, pp. 1288–1297, AIAA, August 2006. View at Scopus
  73. G. W. Cai, B. M. Chen, X. Dong, and T. H. Lee, “Design and implementation of a robust and nonlinear flight control system for an unmanned helicopter,” Mechatronics, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 803–820, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. G. G. Farris, V. K. Merrick, and R. M. Gerdes, “Simulation evaluation of flight controls and display concepts for VTOL shipboard operations,” in Proceedings of the Guidance and Control Conference, AIAA-83-2173, 1983.
  75. H. N. Swenson, R. E. Zelenka, G. H. Hardy, and M. G. Dearing, “Simulation evaluation of a low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system adapted for a helmet-mounted display,” NASA TM-103883, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1992. View at Google Scholar
  76. S. L. Graham, “Design analysis and methodology for evaluating flight control systems,” in Proceedings of the AIAA/AHS/ASEE Aircraft Systems, Design & Technology Meeting, AIAA-86-2655, 1986.
  77. E. Torenbeek and H. Wittenberg, Flight Physics, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  78. L. M. Damman, “Flight test development and evaluation of a multimock digital flight control system in an A-7D (DIGITAC),” in Proceedings of the Aircraft Systems and Technology Meeting, AIAA-76-927, Dallas, Tex, USA, 1976.
  79. C. J. Scherz and P. B. Tucker, “Flight test evaluation of active ride control system tactical aircraft,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, AIAA-85-1860, Snowmass, Colo, USA, August 1985.
  80. H. Suzuki, S. Ishimoto, and T. Morito, “Postflight evaluation of the HYFLEX guidance, navigation and control,” in Proceedings of the Space Plane and Hypersonic Systems and Technology Conference, AIAA-96-4525-CP, Norfolk, Va, USA, 1996.
  81. T. Ninomiya, H. Suzuki, and T. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of guidance and control system of high speed flight demonstrator phase II,” in Proceedings of the 13th AIAA/CIRA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, pp. 673–681, May 2005. View at Scopus
  82. T. Ninomiya, H. Suzuki, and T. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of guidance and control systems of a balloon-launched drop-test vehicle,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1423–1426, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Y. Nam and S. K. Hong, “Force control system design for aerodynamic load simulator,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 549–558, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. D. Ronch, M. Ghoreyshi, and K. J. Badcock, “On the generation of flight dynamics aerodynamic tables by computational fluid dynamics,” Progress in Aerospace Sciences, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 597–620, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. W. P. Schoenfeld and F. J. Priolo, “Automated wind tunnel testing,” in Proceedings of the 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA 1998-709, Reno, Nev, USA, January 1998.
  86. J. C. Magill, K. R. McManus, M. G. Miller, and M. G. Allen, “A high bandwidth air bearing balance for dynamic wind tunnel testing,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA-97-3648, New Orleans, La, USA, 1997.
  87. F. C. Lawrence and E. J. Marquart, “Virtual flight testing (VFT) at the Arnold Engineering Development Center,” in Proceedings of the ITEA 1999 Conference, Indianapolis, Ind, USA, March 1999.
  88. G. Gebert, J. Kelly, J. Lopez, and J. Evers, “Virtual flight testing in a ground test facility,” in Proceedings of the 18th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, AIAA 2000-4019, 2000.
  89. G. Gebert, J. Kelly, and J. Lopez, “Virtual flight test (VFT) modeling and assessment,” TEAS Reference TR-9800723-90U, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  90. G. Gebert, J. Kelly, J. Lopez, and J. Evers, “Wind tunnel based virtual flight testing,” in Proceedings of the 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA 2000-46669, 2000.
  91. C. Lawrence and B. Mills, “Status update of the AEDC virtual flight testing development program,” in Proceedings of the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit (AIAA '02), AIAA 2002-0168, 2002.
  92. J. C. Magill and S. D. Wehe, “Initial test of a wire suspension mount for missile virtual flight testing,” in Proceedings of the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA, January 2002. View at Scopus
  93. J. C. Magill, P. Cataldi, J. R. Morency, D. X. Hammer, and B. D. Anderson, “Design of a wire suspension system for dynamic testing in AEDC 16T,” in Proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA 2003-452, Reno, Nev, USA, January 2003.
  94. J. C. Magill, P. Cataldi, J. R. Morency, D. X. Hammer, R. Burgess, and E. Jeter, “Active yaw control with a wire suspension system for dynamic wind tunnel testing,” in Proceedings of the 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA 2005-1295, Reno, Nev, USA, 2005.
  95. J. C. Magill, P. Cataldi, J. R. Morency, D. X. Hammer, R. Burgess, and E. Jeter, “Demonstration of a wire suspension for wind-tunnel virtual flight testing,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 624–633, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. H. Kumar, A preliminary study into the design of a free flight wind tunnel model for demonstrating the dynamic characteristics of aircraft [M.S. thesis], Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1980.
  97. I. A. Malik, The design, development and evaluation of an active control aircraft model wind tunnel facility [Ph.D. dissertation], Cranfield Institute of Technology, Cranfield, Uk, 1982.
  98. F. Heydari, On the estimation of stability and control characteristics of a generalized forward swept wing aircraft [Ph.D. dissertation], Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1986.
  99. M. V. Cook and F. Heydari, “The estimation of the stability and control characteristics of a canard configured combat aircraft having a forward swept wing,” in Proceedings of the 15th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, London, UK, 1986.
  100. M. V. Cook, “On the use of small scale aircraft models for dynamic wind tunnel investigation of stability and control,” Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 190–197, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. D. Carnduff, S. D. Erbsloeh, A. K. Cooke, and M. V. Cook, “Development of a low cost dynamic wind tunnel facility utilizing MEMS inertial sensors,” in Proceedings of the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 2008. View at Scopus
  102. S. D. Carnduff, S. D. Erbsloeh, A. K. Cooke, and M. V. Cook, “Characterizing stability and control of subscale aircraft from wind-tunnel dynamic motion,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 137–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. P. M. Davison and H. Mark, “Modelling and control of a single degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel rig,” in Proceedings of the European Control Conference, pp. 597–602, Cambridge, UK, September 2003.
  104. P. M. Davison, M. H. Lowenberg, and M. D. Bernardo, “Modelling non-linear behavior in a single degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel rig,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA 2003-5314, Austin, Tex, USA, August 2003.
  105. M. H. Lowenberg and H. L. Kyle, “Development of a pendulum support rig dynamic wind tunnel apparatus,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference and Exhibition (AIAA '02), AIAA-02-4879, 2002.
  106. A. Gatto and M. H. Lowenberg, “Evaluation of a three degree of freedom test rig for stability derivative estimation,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1747–1761, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. Gatto, “Application of a pendulum support test rig for aircraft stability derivative estimation,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 927–934, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. Pattinson and M. H. Lowenbergy, “A multi-degree-of-freedom rig for the wind tunnel determination of dynamic data,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA 2009-5727, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, August 2009.
  109. T. S. Richardson, A. Dubs, M. H. Lowenberg, and C. D. Jones, “Wind-tunnel testing of a dynamic state-feedback gain scheduled control system,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibition, AIAA 2005-5976, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2005.
  110. P. M. Davison, M. H. Lowenberg, and M. Di Bernardo, “Experimental analysis and modeling of limit cycles in a dynamic wind-tunnel rig,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 776–785, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. G. Papageorgiou and K. Glover, “Design, development and control of the HIRM wind tunnel model,” in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC '99), pp. 1529–1537, IEEE, December 1999. View at Scopus
  112. G. Papageorgiou and K. Glover, “Two-degree-of-freedom control of an actively controlled wind-tunnel model,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 510–516, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. N. P. Sohi, Y. A. Prudnikov, and Y. N. Temlyakov, “Estimation of spin characteristics of aerobatic aircraft by means of spin modes modeling in a horizontal wind tunnel,” in Proceedings of the 22th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2002.
  114. N. P. Sohi, “Modeling of spin modes of supersonic aircraft in horizontal wind tunnel,” in Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan, September 2004.
  115. S. Balakrishna and T. Niranjana, “Wind tunnel dynamic flying study of the pitching moment derivatives of the standard dynamics model in active control,” in Proceedings of the 14th Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA 1987-2626, Monterey, Calif, USA, August 1987.
  116. S. Balakrishna, T. Niranjana, M. S. Rajamurthy, S. Srinathkumar, S. R. Rajan, and S. K. Singh, “Estimation of aerodynamic derivatives using dynamic wind tunnel simulation technique,” in Proceedings of the NAL-DLR Symposium on System Identification, 1993.
  117. M. S. Rajamurthy, “Generation of comprehensive longitudinal aerodynamic data using dynamic wind-tunnel simulation,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. J. Hu and Q. Li, “Primary investigation of the virtual flight testing techniques in wind tunnel,” Journal of Experiments in Fluid Mechanics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 95–99, 2010 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. H. Li, Z. L. Zhao, and Z. L. Fan, “Simulation method for wind tunnel based virtual flight testing,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Physics of Fluids (ISPF '12), 2012.
  120. H. Li, Study on the similarity criteria and simulation method of the wind tunnel based virtual flight testing [Ph.D. dissertation], CARDC, Mianyang, China, 2012 (Chinese).
  121. B. W. Nie, M. H. Zhu, L. L. Guo, Y. C. Wen, and M. Jiang, “Key technique and design scheme of the wind tunnel virtual flight system,” in Proceedings of the Chinese Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (CGNCC '12), 2012 (in Chinese).
  122. J. Pattinson, M. H. Lowenberg, and M. G. Goman, “Multi-degree-of-freedom wind-tunnel maneuver rig for dynamic simulation and aerodynamic model identification,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 551–566, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. M. J. Goodyer, The magnetic suspension of wind tunnel models for dynamic tests [Ph.D. dissertation], University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 1967.
  124. E. E. Covert, “Magnetic suspension and balance systems,” IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 14–22, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. P. L. Lawing and W. G. Johnson, “A forecast of new test capabilities using magnetic suspension and balance systems,” in Proceedings of the 15th Aerodynamic Testing Conference, AIAA-88-2013, 1988.
  126. C. P. Britcher, “Application of magnetic suspension technology to large scale facilities-progress, problems and promises,” NASA CR-203325), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1995. View at Google Scholar
  127. A. K. Owen, F. K. Owen, and P. Grove, “Magnetic suspension and balance testing in support of hyper-X,” in Proceedings of the 12th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies, AIAA 2003-6958, Norfolk, Va, USA, December 2003.
  128. D.-K. Lee, J.-S. Lee, J.-H. Han, and Y. Kawamura, “System identification and controller design of a micro air vehicle using magnetic suspension and balance system,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, AIAA, August 2011. View at Scopus