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International Journal of Aerospace Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 7630950, 9 pages
Research Article

Azimuth and Elevation Dynamic Tracking of UAVs via 3-Axial ULA and Particle Filtering

1WiPLi Lab, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy
2EcoSys Lab, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Universitätsstraße 65-67, 9020 Klagenfurt, Austria

Received 1 April 2016; Revised 23 May 2016; Accepted 29 May 2016

Academic Editor: Yanbo Zhu

Copyright © 2016 Andrea Papaiz and Andrea M. Tonello. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) localization has become crucial in recent years, mainly for navigation or self-positioning and for UAV based security monitoring and surveillance. In this paper, azimuth and elevation radio positioning of UAVs are considered. The localization is based on multiple differential phase-of-arrival measures exploiting a 3-Axial Uniform Linear Array of antennas. An ad hoc particle filtering algorithm is applied to improve the positioning performance using a dynamic motion model. A novel adaptive algorithm, namely, Particles Swarm Adaptive Scattering (PSAS), is proposed to increment the algorithm stability and precision. To assess performance a Confined Area Random Aerial Trajectory Emulator (CARATE) algorithm has been developed to generate actual paths of flying UAVs. The algorithm performance is compared with the baseline method and with the average trajectory Cramér Rao lower bound to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.