International Journal of Aerospace Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Analysis on Aircraft Brake Squeal Problem Based on Finite Element Method Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Brake squeal phenomenon is a problem that has been long studied using multiple methods and theories. Finite Element Method (FEM) has been applied to the study of brake squeal problem. First, a disc brake model has been established. Complex mode theory has been applied to the mode analysis and unstable vibration modes can be extracted subsequently. The form of unstable vibration mode has been studied. Then, transient dynamic simulation using explicit dynamic method has been performed. Response in both time and frequency domain has been analyzed. Two methods have been compared, considering accuracy and calculation consumption. Then, the effect of different parameters such as coefficient of friction, stiffness, and brake force fluctuation frequency on squeal phenomenon has been analyzed. It can be found that coefficient of friction and the brake stiffness have a positive correlation with the extent of brake squeal phenomenon, while the frequency of brake force fluctuation should remain as low as possible. Afterwards, a ring-shaped layer of viscoelastic damping material is constrained to outer margin of the stator to restrain the unstable modal. This method can change the vibration nature and improve the brake squeal problem. Ming Zhang, Ran Xu, and Hong Nie Copyright © 2017 Ming Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Active and Passive Control Techniques on Mach 1.5 Cavity Flow Dynamics Thu, 25 May 2017 06:52:47 +0000 Supersonic flow over cavities has been of interest since 1960s because cavities represent the bomb bays of aircraft. The flow is transient, turbulent, and complicated. Pressure fluctuations inside the cavity can impede successful weapon release. The objective of this study is to use active and passive control methods on supersonic cavity flow numerically to decrease or eliminate pressure oscillations. Jet blowing at several locations on the front and aft walls of the cavity configuration is used as an active control method. Several techniques are used for passive control including using a cover plate to separate the flow dynamics inside and outside of the cavity, trailing edge wall modifications, such as inclination of the trailing edge, and providing curvature to the trailing edge wall. The results of active and passive control techniques are compared with the baseline case in terms of pressure fluctuations, sound pressure levels at the leading edge, trailing edge walls, and cavity floor and in terms of formation of the flow structures and the results are presented. It is observed from the results that modification of the trailing edge wall is the most effective of the control methods tested leading to up to 40 dB reductions in cavity tones. Selin Aradag, Kubra Asena Gelisli, and Elcin Ceren Yaldir Copyright © 2017 Selin Aradag et al. All rights reserved. Tradeoff Study between Cost and Environmental Impact of Aircraft Using Simultaneous Optimization of Airframe and Engine Cycle Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 To investigate more efficient aircraft configurations which have less environmental impact, this paper develops a multidisciplinary analysis framework integrated with the airframe and propulsion analysis modules. The characteristics for propulsion, aerodynamics, weight, performance, cost, emissions, and noise can be rapidly predicted by the framework. The impact of propulsion installation with large diameter engines on aircraft weight and drag are considered in the framework. A wide-body aircraft was taken as an example for the optimization to investigate the tradeoffs between the cost metric and the environmental performance metrics. Several cases for single objective and multiobjective optimizations were performed. In the single objective optimizations, the direct operating cost, the cumulative noise, the oxides of nitrogen emissions during landing-takeoff cycle, and the mission oxides of nitrogen emissions were considered as an objective and minimized, respectively. The different objectives resulted in designs with different airframe parameters and engine cycle parameters. In the multiobjective optimizations, the direct operating costs and environmental performances were considered as the objectives simultaneously. The optimization results were the Pareto fronts for the minimum direct operating costs and environmental performances, which illustrate the quantitative relationships between the economic metric and the environmental performances. Xiao Chai, Xiongqing Yu, and Yu Wang Copyright © 2017 Xiao Chai et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Gradient-Based Solutions versus Genetic Algorithms in the Correlation of Thermal Mathematical Models of Spacecrafts Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The correlation of the thermal mathematical models (TMMs) of spacecrafts with the results of the thermal test is a demanding task in terms of time and effort. Theoretically, it can be automatized by means of optimization techniques, although this is a challenging task. Previous studies have shown the ability of genetic algorithms to perform this task in several cases, although some limitations have been detected. In addition, gradient-based methods, although also presenting some limitations, have provided good solutions in other technical fields. For this reason, the performance of genetic algorithms and gradient-based methods in the correlation of TMMs is discussed in this paper to compare the pros and cons of them. The case of study used in the comparison is a real space instrument flown aboard the International Space Station. Eva Anglada, Laura Martinez-Jimenez, and Iñaki Garmendia Copyright © 2017 Eva Anglada et al. All rights reserved. Design of Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop TV Guidance System Simulation Platform Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This paper presents a novel design of a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) missile TV guidance system simulation platform, which consists of a development computer, a target computer, a turntable, a control cabin, and a joystick. The guidance system simulation model is created on the development computer by Simulink® and then downloaded to the target computer. Afterwards, Simulink Real-Time™ runs the model in real-time. Meanwhile, the target computer uploads the real-time simulation data back to the development computer. The hardware in the simulation loop is TV camera, encoders, control cabin, servomotors, and target simulator. In terms of hardware and software, the system has been simplified compared with the existing works. The volume of the turntable integrating the target simulator and the seeker simulator is about 0.036 cubic meters compared to the original 8 cubic meters, so it has a compact structure. The platform can perform the closed-loop control, so the simulation has high precision. Taking the TV guidance simulation as an example, in the case of target maneuvering, the final miss distance of the TV guidance missile is 0.11812 m, while the miss distance of the original system is 13 m. The trajectories obtained from the HIL and mathematical simulations substantially coincide. So the simulation results show that the proposed HIL simulation platform is effective. Zhongyuan Chen, Xiaoming Liu, and Wanchun Chen Copyright © 2017 Zhongyuan Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Double Cluster and Principal Component Analysis-Based Optimization Method for the Orbit Design of Earth Observation Satellites Tue, 09 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The weighted sum and genetic algorithm-based hybrid method (WSGA-based HM), which has been applied to multiobjective orbit optimizations, is negatively influenced by human factors through the artificial choice of the weight coefficients in weighted sum method and the slow convergence of GA. To address these two problems, a cluster and principal component analysis-based optimization method (CPC-based OM) is proposed, in which many candidate orbits are gradually randomly generated until the optimal orbit is obtained using a data mining method, that is, cluster analysis based on principal components. Then, the second cluster analysis of the orbital elements is introduced into CPC-based OM to improve the convergence, developing a novel double cluster and principal component analysis-based optimization method (DCPC-based OM). In DCPC-based OM, the cluster analysis based on principal components has the advantage of reducing the human influences, and the cluster analysis based on six orbital elements can reduce the search space to effectively accelerate convergence. The test results from a multiobjective numerical benchmark function and the orbit design results of an Earth observation satellite show that DCPC-based OM converges more efficiently than WSGA-based HM. And DCPC-based OM, to some degree, reduces the influence of human factors presented in WSGA-based HM. Yunfeng Dong, Xiaona Wei, Lu Tian, Fengrui Liu, and Guangde Xu Copyright © 2017 Yunfeng Dong et al. All rights reserved. Reduced Actuator Set for Pressure Control and Thrust Distribution for Multinozzle Propulsion Systems Mon, 08 May 2017 09:38:04 +0000 This study investigated an approach to reduce the number of actuators used for internal pressure control and thruster allocation in a multinozzle solid propulsion system. In the proposed design, the throat areas of four divert nozzles are controlled by only three actuators, and chamber pressure maintenance and thrust distribution are achieved by controlling the throat areas. Using the proposed actuator set, thrust allocation can be accomplished in a more efficient way than when independent actuators are employed for each nozzle. Yeerang Lim, Jaecheong Lee, Hyochoong Bang, Hwanil Huh, and Hosung Lee Copyright © 2017 Yeerang Lim et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Output Regulation with Input Delay and Application in AHV Attitude Control Mon, 08 May 2017 08:48:27 +0000 Time delay phenomena exist almost everywhere in the actual world and are especially important in the control of an AHV. The small time delay usually ignored in control may cause quite obvious errors in the flight trajectory tracking, because of the extremely high flight speed. In this paper, a new framework of solving a nonlinear input delay regulation problem is proposed for the first time, which is comprised of nonlinear damping controllers, nonlinear disturbance observers, and a nonlinear time delay predictor-based compensator, under the proved separation principle. Then the attitude tracking control of an AHV with a known time-varying input delay is studied based on the proposed design framework. Simulation results show the advantage of the proposed control method. Liang Cai and Qingxian Wu Copyright © 2017 Liang Cai and Qingxian Wu. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Heating Induced by Dual Injections into Hypersonic Cross Flow Mon, 08 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In this study, the distribution of surface heat transfer induced by dual side-jets injected into a hypersonic flow has been visualized using a temperature sensitive paint. The experiments were performed in both tandem and parallel injector arrangements, and the spacing between the injection holes was taken as a parameter in each arrangement. As a result, the aerodynamic heating in the separated region of the boundary layer and in the horseshoe vortex was clearly visualized. In the tandem arrangements, heat transfer remarkably increased immediately upstream of the front injector. The distributions and the intensity of surface heat transfer were similar to those caused by the single injection. On the other hand, in the parallel arrangements, the extent of the separation nearly doubled, and the maximum heat flux decreased to less than half of that from the single injection. The global distribution of heat transfer varied significantly as the injector spacing was changed. When the injectors were positioned with a large spacing, the interaction between the side-jets was relatively lowered, and thus distribution, as for the single injector, was induced around each injection hole individually. In contrast, with a short spacing, the dual injection behaved as a single obstacle. The most effective reduction of maximum heat flux was achieved with an intermediate injector spacing. Masato Taguchi, Koichi Mori, and Yoshiaki Nakamura Copyright © 2017 Masato Taguchi et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation of Brazilian 14-X B Hypersonic Scramjet Aerospace Vehicle Tue, 02 May 2017 09:34:51 +0000 The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet) to be tested in flight into the Earth’s atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv), Brazil. The IEAv T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is a ground-test facility able to produce high Mach number and high enthalpy flows in the test section close to those encountered during the flight of the 14-X B into the Earth’s atmosphere at hypersonic flight speeds. A 1 m long stainless steel 14-X B model was experimentally investigated at T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, for freestream Mach numbers ranging from 7 to 8. Static pressure measurements along the lower surface of the 14-X B, as well as high-speed Schlieren photographs taken from the 5.5° leading edge and the 14.5° deflection compression ramp, provided experimental data. Experimental data was compared to the analytical theoretical solutions and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, showing good qualitative agreement and in consequence demonstrating the importance of these methods in the project of the 14-X B hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle. João Felipe de Araujo Martos, Israel da Silveira Rêgo, Sergio Nicholas Pachon Laiton, Bruno Coelho Lima, Felipe Jean Costa, and Paulo Gilberto de Paula Toro Copyright © 2017 João Felipe de Araujo Martos et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Energy Constraint Based UAV Path Planning for Search and Coverage Sun, 30 Apr 2017 09:19:36 +0000 A path planning strategy for a search and coverage mission for a small UAV that maximizes the area covered based on stored energy and maneuverability constraints is presented. The proposed formulation has a high level of autonomy, without requiring an exact choice of optimization parameters, and is appropriate for real-time implementation. The computed trajectory maximizes spatial coverage while closely satisfying terminal constraints on the position of the vehicle and minimizing the time of flight. Comparisons of this formulation to a path planning algorithm based on those with time constraint show equivalent coverage performance but improvement in prediction of overall mission duration and accuracy of the terminal position of the vehicle. German Gramajo and Praveen Shankar Copyright © 2017 German Gramajo and Praveen Shankar. All rights reserved. Assessment of Helicopter Pilot-in-the-Loop Models Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of this paper is the evaluation of several pilot models found in the literature, suited for helicopter pilot-assisted and pilot-induced oscillations analyses. Three main topics are discussed: (i) sensitivity of rotorcraft-pilot couplings simulations on the application of the different pilot models available in the literature; (ii) effect of vehicle modeling on active pilot modeling; (iii) effects of interactions between active and passive pilot models. The focus is on hovering flight, where a specific adverse rotorcraft-pilot coupling phenomenon, the vertical bounce, may occur. Pilot models are coupled with a comprehensive aeroservoelastic model of a mid-weight helicopter. The numerical investigations are performed in frequency domain, in terms of eigenanalysis and frequency response analysis. Massimo Gennaretti, Federico Porcacchia, Simone Migliore, and Jacopo Serafini Copyright © 2017 Massimo Gennaretti et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Yaw Angle on a Compressible Rectangular Cavity Flow Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Experiments are performed to determine the characteristics of a compressible flow over yawed rectangular cavities for Mach numbers of 0.64, 0.70, and 0.83. The cavity’s length-to-depth ratio varies from 4.43 to 21.50 and the length-to-width ratio is unity. The yaw angle is 0°–45°. The upstream compression and downstream expansion near the front and rear corners of a cavity decrease when the value of the yaw angle increases. The amplitude of the fluctuating pressure is a maximum for an open cavity with a yaw angle of 15°. An increase in the yaw angle results in a reduction in the pressure fluctuations for both open and transitional cavities. In the span-wise direction, variations in the mean and fluctuating pressure are less significant than those in the chord-wise direction. The oscillating frequency of resonance varies slightly with the yaw angle, but the amplitudes for the power spectral density are significantly reduced when the yaw angle is larger than 30°. For lower Mach numbers, the lower mode plays an important role in self-sustained oscillations for an open cavity when there is an increase in the yaw angle. Kuan-Huang Lee, Kung-Ming Chung, and Keh-Chin Chang Copyright © 2017 Kuan-Huang Lee et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation of Projectile Oblique Impact on Microspacecraft Structure Sun, 16 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In the present study, the microspacecraft bulkhead was reduced to the double honeycomb panel, and the projectile oblique hypervelocity impact on the double honeycomb panel was simulated. The distribution of the debris cloud and the damage of a honeycomb sandwich panel were investigated when the incident angles were set to be 60°, 45°, and 30°. The results showed that as incident angle decreased, the distribution of debris cloud was increased gradually, while the maximum perforation size of the rear face sheet was firstly increased with the decrease of the incident angle and then decreased. On the other hand, the damage area and the damage degree of the front face sheet of the second honeycomb panel layer were increased with the decrease of the incident angle. Finally, the critical angle of front and rear face sheets of the honeycomb sandwich panel was obtained under oblique hypervelocity impact. Zhiyuan Zhang, Runqiang Chi, Baojun Pang, and Gongshun Guan Copyright © 2017 Zhiyuan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Shape-Based Method for Continuous Low-Thrust Trajectory Design between Circular Coplanar Orbits Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The shape-based method can provide suitable initial guesses for trajectory optimization, which are useful for quickly converging a more accurate trajectory. Combined with the optimal control theory, an optimized shape-based method using the finite Fourier series is proposed in this paper. Taking the flight time-fixed case and the time-free case into account, respectively, the optimized shape-based method, which considers the first-order optimal necessary conditions, can guarantee that not only an orbit designed during the preliminary phase is optimal, but also the thrust direction is not constrained to be tangential. Besides, the traditional shape-based method using the finite Fourier series, in which the thrust direction is constrained to be tangential, is developed for the time-free case in this paper. The Earth-Mars case and the LEO-GEO case are used to verify the optimized shape-based method’s feasibility for time-fixed and time-free continuous low-thrust trajectory design between circular coplanar orbits, respectively. The optimized shaped-based method can design a lower cost trajectory. Qun Fang, Xuefeng Wang, Chong Sun, and Jianping Yuan Copyright © 2017 Qun Fang et al. All rights reserved. Spatial-Temporal Instability of an Inviscid Shear Layer Sun, 09 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In this work, we explore the transition of absolute instability and convective instability in a compressible inviscid shear layer, through a linear spatial-temporal instability analysis. From linearized governing equations of the shear layer and the ideal-gas equation of state, the dispersion relation for the pressure perturbation was obtained. The eigenvalue problem for the evolution of two-dimensional perturbation was solved by means of shooting method. The zero group velocity is obtained by a saddle point method. The absolute/convective instability characteristics of the flow are determined by the temporal growth rate at the saddle point. The absolute/convective nature of the flow instability has strong dependence on the values of the temperature ratio, the velocity ratio, the oblique angle, and number. A parametric study indicates that, for a great value of velocity ratio, the inviscid shear layer can transit to absolute instability. The increase of temperature ratio decreases the absolute growth rate when the temperature ratio is large; the effect of temperature ratio is opposite when the temperature ratio is relatively small. The obliquity of the perturbations would cause the increase of the absolute growth rate. The effect of number is different when the oblique angle is great and small. Besides, the absolute instability boundary is found in the velocity ratio, temperature ratio, and number space. Qing-fei Fu, Li-zi Qin, and Li-jun Yang Copyright © 2017 Qing-fei Fu et al. All rights reserved. Shock Tube as an Impulsive Application Device Wed, 05 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Current investigations solely focus on application of an impulse facility in diverse area of high-speed aerodynamics and structural mechanics. Shock tube, the fundamental impulse facility, is specially designed and calibrated for present objectives. Force measurement experiments are performed on a hemispherical test model integrated with the stress wave force balance. Similar test model is considered for heat transfer measurements using coaxial thermocouple. Force and heat transfer experiments demonstrated that the strain gauge and thermocouple have lag time of 11.5 and 9 microseconds, respectively. Response time of these sensors in measuring the peak load is also measured successfully using shock tube facility. As an outcome, these sensors are found to be suitable for impulse testing. Lastly, the response of aluminum plates subjected to impulsive loading is analyzed by measuring the in-plane strain produced during deformation. Thus, possibility of forming tests in shock is also confirmed. Soumya Ranjan Nanda, Sumit Agarwal, Vinayak Kulkarni, and Niranjan Sahoo Copyright © 2017 Soumya Ranjan Nanda et al. All rights reserved. PCA-Based Line Detection from Range Data for Mapping and Localization-Aiding of UAVs Tue, 04 Apr 2017 08:07:29 +0000 This paper presents an original technique for robust detection of line features from range data, which is also the core element of an algorithm conceived for mapping 2D environments. A new approach is also discussed to improve the accuracy of position and attitude estimates of the localization by feeding back angular information extracted from the detected edges in the updating map. The innovative aspects of the line detection algorithm regard the proposed hierarchical clusterization method for segmentation. Instead, line fitting is carried out by exploiting the Principal Component Analysis, unlike traditional techniques relying on least squares linear regression. Numerical simulations are purposely conceived to compare these approaches for line fitting. Results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique as it provides comparable performance in terms of computational load and accuracy compared to the least squares method. Also, performance of the overall line detection architecture, as well as of the solutions proposed for line-based mapping and localization-aiding, is evaluated exploiting real range data acquired in indoor environments using an UTM-30LX-EW 2D LIDAR. This paper lies in the framework of autonomous navigation of unmanned vehicles moving in complex 2D areas, for example, being unexplored, full of obstacles, GPS-challenging, or denied. Roberto Opromolla, Giancarmine Fasano, Michele Grassi, Al Savvaris, and Antonio Moccia Copyright © 2017 Roberto Opromolla et al. All rights reserved. Application of Probabilistic and Nonprobabilistic Hybrid Reliability Analysis Based on Dynamic Substructural Extremum Response Surface Decoupling Method for a Blisk of the Aeroengine Tue, 28 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 For the nondeterministic factors of an aeroengine blisk, including both factors with sufficient and insufficient statistical data, based on the dynamic substructural method of determinate analysis, the extremum response surface method of probabilistic analysis, and the interval method of nonprobabilistic analysis, a methodology called the probabilistic and nonprobabilistic hybrid reliability analysis based on dynamic substructural extremum response surface decoupling method (P-NP-HRA-DS-ERSDM) is proposed. The model includes random variables and interval variables to determine the interval failure probability and the interval reliability index. The extremum response surface function and its flow chart of mixed reliability analysis are given. The interval analysis is embedded in the most likely failure point in the iterative process. The probabilistic analysis and nonprobabilistic analysis are investigated alternately. Tuned and mistuned blisks are studied in a complicated environment, and the results are compared with the Monte Carlo method (MCM) and the multilevel nested algorithm (MLNA) to verify that the hybrid model can better handle reliability problems concurrently containing random variables and interval variables; meanwhile, it manifests that the computational efficiency of this method is superior and more reasonable for analysing and designing a mistuned blisk. Therefore, this methodology has very important practical significance. Bin Bai, Wei Zhang, Botong Li, Chao Li, and Guangchen Bai Copyright © 2017 Bin Bai et al. All rights reserved. Ionospheric Gradient Threat Mitigation in Future Dual Frequency GBAS Mon, 20 Mar 2017 09:26:42 +0000 The Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is a landing system for aircraft based on differential corrections for the signals of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as GPS or Galileo. The main impact on the availability of current single frequency systems results from the necessary protection against ionospheric gradients. With the introduction of Galileo and the latest generation of GPS satellites, a second frequency is available for aeronautical navigation. Dual frequency methods allow forming of ionospheric free combinations of the signals, eliminating a large part of the ionospheric threats to GBAS. However, the combination of several signals increases the noise in the position solution and in the calculation of error bounds. We, therefore, developed a method to base positioning algorithms on single frequency measurements and use the second frequency only for monitoring purposes. In this paper, we describe a detailed derivation of the monitoring scheme and discuss its implications for the use in an aviation context. Michael Felux, Mihaela-Simona Circiu, Jiyun Lee, and Florian Holzapfel Copyright © 2017 Michael Felux et al. All rights reserved. A Modified Pareto Ant Colony Optimization Approach to Solve Biobjective Weapon-Target Assignment Problem Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The weapon-target assignment (WTA) problem, known as an NP-complete problem, aims at seeking a proper assignment of weapons to targets. The biobjective WTA (BOWTA) optimization model which maximizes the expected damage of the enemy and minimizes the cost of missiles is designed in this paper. A modified Pareto ant colony optimization (MPACO) algorithm is used to solve the BOWTA problem. In order to avoid defects in traditional optimization algorithms and obtain a set of Pareto solutions efficiently, MPACO algorithm based on new designed operators is proposed, including a dynamic heuristic information calculation approach, an improved movement probability rule, a dynamic evaporation rate strategy, a global updating rule of pheromone, and a boundary symmetric mutation strategy. In order to simulate real air combat, the pilot operation factor is introduced into the BOWTA model. Finally, we apply the MPACO algorithm and other algorithms to the model and compare the data. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is successfully applied in the field of WTA which improves the performance of the traditional P-ACO algorithm effectively and produces better solutions than the two well-known multiobjective optimization algorithms NSGA-II and SPEA-II. You Li, Yingxin Kou, Zhanwu Li, An Xu, and Yizhe Chang Copyright © 2017 You Li et al. All rights reserved. Wind Turbine Aeroelastic Modeling: Basics and Cutting Edge Trends Tue, 14 Mar 2017 08:30:06 +0000 The interaction of fluid flow and the structure dynamic of the system is a vital subject for machines operating under their coupling. It is not different for wind turbine either, especially as the coupling enhanced for multi-MW turbine with larger and flexible blades and complex control methods, and other nonlinearity, more comprehensive aeroelastic tools will be required to investigate the realistic phenomena. The present paper will overview the aeroelastic tool for wind turbine, the efforts done, gaps, and future directions indicated. One starts with background of the subject, presenting a case study to demonstrate the effect of fluid-structure interaction considering NREL 5MW blade and a brief comparison of several aeroelastic codes. Cutting edge efforts done in the area such as complex inflow, effect of geometric nonlinearity, and other stability and smart control issues are addressed and concluded by elaborating the gaps and future direction of aeroelasticity of wind turbine. Mesfin Belayneh Ageze, Yefa Hu, and Huachun Wu Copyright © 2017 Mesfin Belayneh Ageze et al. All rights reserved. Analytical Approach for Orbital Evasion with Space Geometry Considered Wed, 08 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This paper researches an optimal problem of orbital evasion with considering space geometry by using an analytical approach. Firstly, an angles-only relative navigation model is built and the definition of completely nonobservable maneuver is proposed. After algebraic analysis of relative space geometry, it is proved that the completely nonobservable maneuver is nonexistent. Based on this, the angle measurements of orbit without evasion are set as reference measurements and an analytical solution is derived to find the minimum difference between measurements and the reference measurements in a constant measuring time. Then, an object function using vector multiplication is designed and an optimization model is established so as to prove the optimality of analytical solution. At last, several numerical simulations are performed with different maneuver directions, which verify the effectiveness of the analytical method of this paper for orbital evasion problem. This method offers a new viewpoint for orbital evasion problem. Dateng Yu, Hua Wang, Shuai Guo, and Hongyu Wang Copyright © 2017 Dateng Yu et al. All rights reserved. GA-ARMA Model for Predicting IGS RTS Corrections Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is widely used to estimate user positions. For precise positioning, users should correct for GNSS error components such as satellite orbit and clock errors as well as ionospheric delay. The international GNSS service (IGS) real-time service (RTS) can be used to correct orbit and clock errors in real-time. Since the IGS RTS provides real-time corrections via the Internet, intermittent data loss can occur due to software or hardware failures. We propose applying a genetic algorithm autoregressive moving average (GA-ARMA) model to predict the IGS RTS corrections during data loss periods. The RTS orbit and clock corrections are predicted up to 900 s via the GA-ARMA model, and the prediction accuracies are compared with the results from a generic ARMA model. The orbit prediction performance of the GA-ARMA is nearly equivalent to that of ARMA, but GA-ARMA’s clock prediction performance is clearly better than that of ARMA, achieving a 32% error reduction. Predicted RTS corrections are applied to the broadcast ephemeris, and precise point positioning accuracies are compared. GA-ARMA shows a significant accuracy improvement over ARMA, particularly in terms of vertical positioning. Mingyu Kim and Jeongrae Kim Copyright © 2017 Mingyu Kim and Jeongrae Kim. All rights reserved. An Optical Fiber Measurement System for Blade Tip Clearance of Engine Tue, 28 Feb 2017 12:41:09 +0000 The benefits of reducing the tip clearance have been receiving many scholars’ attention all the time, which bring turbine efficiency increasing, emissions reduction, payloads increasing, and mission range abilities extension. In order to gain the blade tip clearance dynamically, a prototype optical fiber measurement system was built and tested based on the rotor test rig. The optical fiber tip clearance measurement system consists of the reflective intensity-modulated optical fiber bundle (sensor), main signal processing unit, high-speed data acquisition card, and a computer. The static performance and dynamic performance experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the system we designed. In addition, the results show that the accuracy of the system is 25 μm or better; the stability of the measurement system was evaluated in room temperature. The clearance measurement range is about 5 mm, and sensitivity of the sensor is 0.0733/mm. Furthermore, the typical tip clearance dynamic measurement experiment results show that the system has good dynamic response characteristics as well. The system will provide a new tool for engine health monitoring or fast active tip clearance control. Jia Binghui and He Lei Copyright © 2017 Jia Binghui and He Lei. All rights reserved. Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis of Transonic Aerodynamics with Geometric Uncertainty Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Airfoil geometric uncertainty can generate aerodynamic characteristics fluctuations. Uncertainty quantification is applied to compute its impact on the aerodynamic characteristics. In addition, the contribution of each uncertainty variable to aerodynamic characteristics should be computed by the uncertainty sensitivity analysis. In the paper, Sobol’s analysis is used for uncertainty sensitivity analysis and a nonintrusive polynomial chaos method is used for uncertainty quantification and Sobol’s analysis. It is difficult to describe geometric uncertainty because it needs a lot of input parameters. In order to alleviate the contradiction between the variable dimension and computational cost, a principal component analysis is introduced to describe geometric uncertainty of airfoil. Through this technique, the number of input uncertainty variables can be reduced and typical global deformation modes can be obtained. By uncertainty quantification, we can learn that the flow characteristics of shock wave and boundary layer separation are sensitive to the geometric uncertainty in transonic region, which is the main reason that transonic drag is sensitive to the geometric uncertainty. The sensitivity analysis shows that the model can be simplified by eliminating unimportant geometric modes. Moreover, which are the most important geometric modes to transonic aerodynamics can be learnt. This is very helpful for airfoil design. Xiaojing Wu, Weiwei Zhang, and Shufang Song Copyright © 2017 Xiaojing Wu et al. All rights reserved. Triple-Frequency GPS Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution Using Dual-Frequency Based IGS Precise Clock Products Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 With the availability of the third civil signal in the Global Positioning System, triple-frequency Precise Point Positioning ambiguity resolution methods have drawn increasing attention due to significantly reduced convergence time. However, the corresponding triple-frequency based precise clock products are not widely available and adopted by applications. Currently, most precise products are generated based on ionosphere-free combination of dual-frequency L1/L2 signals, which however are not consistent with the triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements, resulting in inaccurate positioning and unstable float ambiguities. In this study, a GPS triple-frequency PPP ambiguity resolution method is developed using the widely used dual-frequency based clock products. In this method, the interfrequency clock biases between the triple-frequency and dual-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements are first estimated and then applied to triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements to obtain stable float ambiguities. After this, the wide-lane L2/L5 and wide-lane L1/L2 integer property of ambiguities are recovered by estimating the satellite fractional cycle biases. A test using a sparse network is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. The results show that the ambiguity resolution can be achieved in minutes even tens of seconds and the positioning accuracy is in decimeter level. Fei Liu and Yang Gao Copyright © 2017 Fei Liu and Yang Gao. All rights reserved. Modified Regression Rate Formula of PMMA Combustion by a Single Plane Impinging Jet Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 A modified regression rate formula for the uppermost stage of CAMUI-type hybrid rocket motor is proposed in this study. Assuming a quasi-steady, one-dimensional, an energy balance against a control volume near the fuel surface is considered. Accordingly, the regression rate formula which can calculate the local regression rate by the quenching distance between the flame and the regression surface is derived. An experimental setup which simulates the combustion phenomenon involved in the uppermost stage of a CAMUI-type hybrid rocket motor was constructed and the burning tests with various flow velocities and impinging distances were performed. A PMMA slab of 20 mm height, 60 mm width, and 20 mm thickness was chosen as a sample specimen and pure oxygen and O2/N2 mixture (50/50 vol.%) were employed as the oxidizers. The time-averaged regression rate along the fuel surface was measured by a laser displacement sensor. The quenching distance during the combustion event was also identified from the observation. The comparison between the purely experimental and calculated values showed good agreement, although a large systematic error was expected due to the difficulty in accurately identifying the quenching distance. Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka, Kyohei Kamei, Yuji Nakamura, and Harunori Nagata Copyright © 2017 Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka et al. All rights reserved. Survey on Flight Control Technology for Large-Scale Helicopter Mon, 20 Feb 2017 14:15:27 +0000 A literature review of flight control technology is presented for large-scale helicopter. Challenges of large-scale helicopter flight control system (FCS) design are illustrated. Following this, various flight control methodologies are described with respect to their engineering implementation and theoretical developments, whose advantages and disadvantages are also analyzed. Then, the challenging research issues on flight control technology are identified, and future directions are highlighted. Jinshuo Hu and Hongbin Gu Copyright © 2017 Jinshuo Hu and Hongbin Gu. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation on the Feasibility of Using a Fresnel Lens as a Solar-Energy Collection System for Enhancing On-Orbit Power Generation Performance Mon, 20 Feb 2017 06:53:01 +0000 Cube satellites have a limitation for generating power because of their cubic structure and extremely small size. In addition, the incidence angle between the sun and the solar panels continuously varies owing to the revolution and rotation of the satellite according to the attitude control strategy. This angle is an important parameter for determining the power generation performance of the cube satellite. In this study, we performed an experimental feasibility study that uses a Fresnel lens as a solar-energy collection system for cube satellite applications, so that the power generation efficiency can be enhanced under the worst incidence angle condition between the sun and solar panels by concentrating and redirecting solar energy onto the solar panels with a commercial Fresnel lens. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we conducted a power-measurement test using a solar simulator and Fresnel lenses at various angles to the light source. In addition, we predicted the on-orbit power-generation enhancement achieved by employing the solar-energy collection system with various attitude control strategies. Tae-Yong Park, Joo-Yong Jung, and Hyun-Ung Oh Copyright © 2017 Tae-Yong Park et al. All rights reserved.