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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2008 (2008), Article ID 102759, 22 pages
Research Article

Anticipated Impact of Hand-Hold Position on the Electromagnetic Interaction of Different Antenna Types/Positions and a Human in Cellular Communications

1Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Academy of Graduate Studies, P.O. Box 79031, Janzoor, Tripoli, Libya
2Microwave and Radar Engineering Department, The Higher Institute of Electronics, P.O. Box 38645, Beni-Walid, Libya

Received 26 August 2008; Accepted 28 September 2008

Academic Editor: J. Nadobny

Copyright © 2008 Salah I. Al-Mously and Marai M. Abousetta. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper is intended to investigate intensely the impact of multipossible hand-hold positions on the electromagnetic (EM) interaction of handset antennas and a human by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Candy-bar handsets with different external and internal antenna positions operating in the GSM900, GSM1800/DCS, and UMTS/IMT-2000 bands are hereby simulated with configuration of the most parts in order to achieve the commercially available handset model design. Homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms both are used to simulate the human head, whereas, a semirealistic model with three different tissues is designed to simulate a human hand holding a set. Both of the antenna performance including the total isotropic sensitivity (TIS) and the specific absorption rate (SAR) in tissues are examined for the different suggested applicable cases, where various positions of antenna, handset and hand are considered in simulations. This simulation study determines that both of the antenna performance and the SAR in tissues significantly alter owing to the positioning of the handset against user's head at different hand levels; where a maximum alteration is observed due to the exposure of handset with internal antenna, as compared with the handset having external antenna.