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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2012, Article ID 183145, 11 pages
Research Article

Propagation Mechanism Modeling in the Near-Region of Arbitrary Cross-Sectional Tunnels

1State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
2Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Técnica de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politècnica de Madrid, 28031 Madrid, Spain

Received 24 April 2012; Accepted 24 September 2012

Academic Editor: Thomas Kürner

Copyright © 2012 Ke Guan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Along with the increase of the use of working frequencies in advanced radio communication systems, the near-region inside tunnels lengthens considerably and even occupies the whole propagation cell or the entire length of some short tunnels. This paper analytically models the propagation mechanisms and their dividing point in the near-region of arbitrary cross-sectional tunnels for the first time. To begin with, the propagation losses owing to the free space mechanism and the multimode waveguide mechanism are modeled, respectively. Then, by conjunctively employing the propagation theory and the three-dimensional solid geometry, the paper presents a general model for the dividing point between two propagation mechanisms. It is worthy to mention that this model can be applied in arbitrary cross-sectional tunnels. Furthermore, the general dividing point model is specified in rectangular, circular, and arched tunnels, respectively. Five groups of measurements are used to justify the model in different tunnels at different frequencies. Finally, in order to facilitate the use of the model, simplified analytical solutions for the dividing point in five specific application situations are derived. The results in this paper could help deepen the insight into the propagation mechanisms in tunnels.