Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2013, Article ID 702176, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/702176
Research Article

A SAP-DoA Method for the Localization of Two Buried Objects

Department of Engineering, “Roma Tre” University, Via Vito Volterra 62, 00146 Rome, Italy

Received 13 May 2013; Accepted 9 September 2013

Academic Editor: Francesco Soldovieri

Copyright © 2013 Simone Meschino et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Raynolds, An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, Wiley, 2nd edition, 2011.
  2. Guidebook on Detection Technologies and Systems for Humanitarian Demining, Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.
  3. D. D. Daniels, EM Detection of Concealed Targets, Wiley, 2010.
  4. L. Zapalowski, M. A. Fiddy, and S. Leeman, “On inverse scattering in the first Born approximation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 827–830, 1984.
  5. J. Devaney, “Inverse-scattering theory within the Rytov approximation,” Optics Letters, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 374–376, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  6. W. B. Beydoun and A. Tarantola, “First Born and Rytov approximations: modeling and inversion conditions in a canonical example,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 1045–1055, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  7. F. Soldovieri, A. Brancaccio, G. Prisco, G. Leone, and R. Pierri, “A Kirchhoff-based shape reconstruction algorithm for the multimonostatic configuration: the realistic case of buried pipes,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3031–3038, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Mayer, “Inverse electronic scattering from shifted projections within the Fresnel-Kirchhoff formalism,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 885–890, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Osumi and K. Ueno, “Microwave holographic imaging methods with improved resolution,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1018–1026, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Chommeloux, C. Pichot, and J. C. Bolomey, “Electromagnetic modeling for microwave imaging of cylindrical buried inhomogeneities,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1064–1076, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Pastorino and A. Randazzo, “A smart antenna system for direction of arrival estimation based on a support vector regression,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 2161–2168, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Caorsi, C. L. Gragnani, S. Medicina, M. Pastorino, and G. Zunino, “Microwave imaging based on a Markov random field model,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 293–303, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  13. P. Lobel, L. Blanc-Féraud, C. Pichet, and M. Barlaud, “A new regularization scheme for inverse scattering,” Inverse Problems, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 403–410, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Caorsi, G. L. Gragnani, and M. Pastorino, “Numerical electromagnetic inverse-scattering solutions for two-dimensional infinite dielectric cylinders buried in a lossy half-space,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 352–356, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Bermani, S. Caorsi, and M. Raffetto, “An inverse scattering approach based on a neural network technique for the detection of dielectric cylinders buried in a lossy half-space,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 26, pp. 69–90, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  16. A. Brancaccio, C. Di Dio, and G. Leone, “Localization of cylinders by near-field multibistatic measurements,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 525–529, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Meschino, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, “Use of a sub-array statistical approach for the detection of a buried object,” Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 365–375, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Meschino, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, “A direction-of-arrival approach for the subsurface localization of a dielectric object,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 85, pp. 68–79, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  19. S. Chandran, Advances in Direction-of-Arrival Estimation, Artech House, Norwood, Mass, USA, 2005.
  20. F. B. Gross, Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
  21. M. Bouvet and G. Bienvenu, High Resolution Methods in Underwater Acoustic, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1991.
  22. M. Bartlett, An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Special References to Methods and Applications, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1961.
  23. J. Capon, “High-resolution frequency wavenumber spectrum analysis,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 1408–1418, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Makhoul, “Linear prediction: a tutorial review,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 561–580, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. P. Burg, Maximum entropy spectrum analysis [Ph.D. dissertation], Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif, USA, 1975.
  26. V. T. Ermolaev and A. B. Gershman, “Fast algorithm for minimum-norm direction-of-arrival estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 2389–2394, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. F. Pisarenko, “The retrieval of harmonics from a covariance function,” Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 347–366, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  28. R. Kumaresan and D. W. Tufts, “Estimating the angles of arrival of multiple plane waves,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 134–139, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. D. Rao and K. V. S. Hari, “Performance analysis of Root-Music,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1939–1949, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Roy and T. Kailath, “ESPRIT—estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 984–995, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. G. Jaffer, “Maximum likelihood direction finding of stochastic sources: a separable solution,” in Proceedings of the ICASSP, vol. 5, pp. 2893–2896, 1988.
  32. M. B. Ottersen, M. Viberg, P. Stoica, and A. Nehorai, “Exact and large sample ML techniques for parameter estimation and detection in array processing,” in Radar Array Processing, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  33. B. Ottersten, M. Viberg, and T. Kailath, “Analysis of subspace fitting and ML techniques for parameter estimation from sensor array data,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 590–600, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Shi, M. Belkin, and B. Yu, “Data spectroscopy: eigenspaces of convolution operators and clustering,” Annals of Statistics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 3960–3984, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Skillicorn, Understanding Complex Datasets: Data Mining with Matrix Decompositions, Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Series, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2007.
  36. M. Di Vico, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, “Scattering by a finite set of perfectly conducting cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space: a spectral-domain solution,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 719–727, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Di Vico, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, “Scattering by buried dielectric cylindrical structures,” Radio Science, vol. 40, no. 6, Article ID RS6S18, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. C. Hoaglin, “A poisonnes plot,” The Statistician, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 146–149, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  39. P. S. La Rosa, A. Nehorai, H. Eswaran, C. L. Lowery, and H. Preissl, “Detection of uterine MMG contractions using a multiple change point estimator and the K-means cluster algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 453–467, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Lee, S. Back, and K. Sung, “Modified K-means algorithm for vector quantizer design,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 2–4, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. Pollard, “Quantization and the method of k-means,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. MacQueen, “Some methods for classification and analysis of multivariate observations,” in Proceedings of the 5th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, L. Le Cam and J. Neyman, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 281–297, University of California, 1967.
  43. F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, and G. Schettini, “Scattering by perfectly conducting circular cylinders buried in a dielectric slab through the cylindrical wave approach,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1208–1217, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, and G. Schettini, “Scattering by dielectric circular cylinders in a dielectric slab,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 687–695, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. Frezza, P. Martinelli, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, “Short-pulse electromagnetic scattering by buried perfectly conducting cylinders,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 611–615, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, G. Schettini, and N. Tedeschi, “Cylindrical-Wave Approach for electromagnetic scattering by subsurface metallic targets in a lossy medium,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 97, pp. 55–59, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. S. Meschino, L. Pajewski, M. Pastorino, A. Randazzo, and G. Schettini, “Detection of subsurface metallic utilities by means of a SAP technique: comparing MUSIC- and SVM-based approaches,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 97, pp. 60–68, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar