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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2014, Article ID 729208, 13 pages
Research Article

Genetic Algorithms in Antennas and Smart Antennas Design Overview: Two Novel Antenna Systems for Triband GNSS Applications and a Circular Switched Parasitic Array for WiMax Applications Developments with the Use of Genetic Algorithms

1Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications, National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Patriarchou Grigoriou and Neapoleos Street, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Attiki, Greece
2School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou, 15773 Attiki, Greece

Received 1 August 2014; Accepted 1 September 2014; Published 11 December 2014

Academic Editor: Jaume Anguera

Copyright © 2014 Stylianos C. Panagiotou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Genetic algorithms belong to a stochastic class of evolutionary techniques, whose robustness and global search of the solutions space have made them extremely popular among researchers. They have been successfully applied to electromagnetic optimization, including antenna design as well as smart antennas design. In this paper, extensive reference to literature related antenna design efforts employing genetic algorithms is taking place and subsequently, three novel antenna systems are designed in order to provide realistic implementations of a genetic algorithm. Two novel antenna systems are presented to cover the new GPS/Galileo band, namely, L5 (1176 MHz), together with the L1 GPS/Galileo and L2 GPS bands (1575 and 1227 MHz). The first system is a modified PIFA and the second one is a helical antenna above a ground plane. Both systems exhibit enhanced performance characteristics, such as sufficient front gain, input impedance matching, and increased front-to-back ratio. The last antenna system is a five-element switched parasitic array with a directional beam with sufficient beamwidth to a predetermined direction and an adequate impedance bandwidth which can be used as receiver for WiMax signals.