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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015, Article ID 105017, 12 pages
Research Article

On the MIMO Capacity for Distributed System under Composite Rayleigh/Rician Fading and Shadowing

1Department of Computer and Telematics Systems Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avenida Santa Teresa del Jornet No. 38, 06800 Merida, Spain
2Nanolab, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
3Department of Signal Theory, Telematics and Communications, CITIC, University of Granada, C/Daniel Saucedo s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain

Received 1 September 2014; Revised 30 November 2014; Accepted 30 November 2014

Academic Editor: Bo Ai

Copyright © 2015 Santiago González-Aurioles et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Wireless channels are commonly affected by short-term fading and long-term fading (shadowing). The shadowing effects must be taken into account also when mobility is present in the wireless scenario. Using a composite fading model, the total channel capacity can be studied for a scenario with short-term Rayleigh fading along with shadowing. This work provides quantitative results for these kinds of scenarios with Rayleigh fading and shadowing, considering also multiple-input and multiple-output systems, which have not been previously reported. In addition, the channel capacity has been studied in depth in its relation with the shadowing level, signal to noise ratio, and the number of elements in the multiple-input and multiple-output system. Moreover, the channel performance with shadowing has been compared to the one without it. Furthermore, Rician model with shadowing is studied and its results are reported. In addition, correlated and experimental results are provided. It is identified that the distributed MIMO systems can benefit from shadowing in Rician channels. This advantage has not been reported previously. This type of fading is proposed for massive MIMO by others and our results open the door to emulate massive MIMO on a reverberation chamber.