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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 206243, 12 pages
Research Article

A Building-Block Favoring Method for the Topology Optimization of Internal Antenna Design

Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Road, Taipei 10608, Taiwan

Received 15 June 2015; Accepted 5 July 2015

Academic Editor: Jaume Anguera

Copyright © 2015 Yen-Sheng Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper proposes a new design technique for internal antenna development. The proposed method is based on the framework of topology optimization incorporated with three effective mechanisms favoring the building blocks of associated optimization problems. Conventionally, the topology optimization of antenna structures discretizes a design space into uniform and rectangular pixels. However, the defining length of the resultant building blocks is so large that the problem difficulty arises; furthermore, the order of the building blocks becomes extremely high, so genetic algorithms (GAs) and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) are not more efficient than the random search algorithm. In order to form tight linkage groups of building blocks, this paper proposes a novel approach to handle the design details. In particular, a nonuniform discretization is adopted to discretize the design space, and the initialization of GAs is assigned as orthogonal arrays (OAs) instead of a randomized population; moreover, the control map of GAs is constructed by ensuring the schema growth based on the generalized schema theorem. By using the proposed method, two internal antennas are thus successfully developed. The simulated and measured results show that the proposed technique significantly outperforms the conventional topology optimization.