Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015, Article ID 245621, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/245621
Research Article

An Efficient Full-Wave Electromagnetic Analysis for Capacitive Body-Coupled Communication

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands

Received 16 February 2015; Revised 28 April 2015; Accepted 4 May 2015

Academic Editor: Lorenzo Crocco

Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Irfan Kazim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Baldus, S. Corroy, A. Fazzi, K. Klabunde, and T. Schenk, “Human-centric connectivity enabled by body-coupled communications,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 172–178, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S.-J. Song, N. Cho, S. Kim, J. Yoo, and H.-J. Yoo, “A 2Mb/s wideband pulse transceiver with direct-coupled interface for human body communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC '06), pp. 2278–2287, IEEE, San Francisco, Calif, USA, February 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Fazzi, S. Ouzounov, and J. van den Homberg, “A 2.75 mW wideband correlation-based transceiver for body-coupled communication,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference—Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC '09), pp. 204–205, San Francisco, Calif, USA, February 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. G. Zimmerman, “Personal area networks: Near-field intrabody communication,” IBM Systems Journal, vol. 35, no. 3-4, pp. 609–617, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Cho, J. Yoo, S.-J. Song, J. Lee, S. Jeon, and H.-J. Yoo, “The human body characteristics as a signal transmission medium for intrabody communication,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1080–1085, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Bae, H. Cho, K. Song, H. Lee, and H.-J. Yoo, “The signal transmission mechanism on the surface of human body for body channel communication,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 582–593, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Hachisuka, Y. Terauchi, Y. Kishi et al., “Simplified circuit modeling and fabrication of intrabody communication devices,” Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, vol. 130-131, pp. 322–330, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Haga, K. Saito, M. Takahashi, and K. Ito, “Proper derivation of equivalent-circuit expressions of intra-body communication channels using quasi-static field,” IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. E-95-B, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Haga, K. Saito, M. Takahashi, and K. Ito, “Equivalent circuit of intrabody communication channels inducing conduction currents inside the human body,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2807–2816, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  10. M. S. Wegmueller, A. Kuhn, J. Froehlich et al., “An attempt to model the human body as a communication channel,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 1851–1857, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Fujii and Y. Okumura, “Effect of earth ground and environment on body-centric communications in the MHz band,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, Article ID 243191, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Norton, “The propagation of radio waves over the surface of the earth and in the upper atmosphere,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1367–1387, 1936. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. K. Norton, “The propagation of radio waves over the surface of the earth and in the upper atmosphere,” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1203–1236, 1937. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. S. Gabriel, R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, “The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 2271–2293, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. IFAC-CNR, An Internet Resource for the Calculation of the Dielectric Properties of Body Tissues in the Frequency Range 10 Hz–100 GHz, IFAC-CNR, Florence, Italy, 1997, http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/.
  16. T. C. W. Schenk, N. S. Mazloum, L. Tan, and P. Rutten, “Experimental characterization of the body-coupled communications channel,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS '08), pp. 234–239, October 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. S. Mazloum, Body-coupled communications: experimental characterization, channel modeling and physical layer design [M.S. thesis], Department of Signals and Systems Distributed Sensor Systems, Chalmers University of Technology Philips Research, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2008.
  18. Computer Simulation Technology (CST), 2015, http://www.cst.com/.
  19. M. Clemens and T. Weiland, “Discrete electromagnetism with the finite integration technique,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 32, pp. 65–87, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Song, K. Zhang, Q. Hao, L. Hu, J. Wang, and F. Shang, “A finite-element simulation of galvanic coupling intra-body communication based on the whole human body,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 13567–13582, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. A. Ruiz and S. Shimamoto, “Experimental evaluation of body channel response and digital modulation schemes for intra-body communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '06), vol. 1, pp. 349–354, IEEE, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. R. Xu, H. Zhu, and J. Yuan, “Electric-field intrabody communication channel modeling with finite-element method,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 705–712, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Sakai, L.-S. Wu, H.-C. Sun, and Y.-X. Guo, “Balun's effect on the measurement of transmission characteristics for intrabody communication channel,” in Proceedings of the IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications (IMWS-BIO '13), pp. 1–3, December 2013.
  24. R. Xu, H. Zhu, and J. Yuan, “Circuit-coupled FEM analysis of the electric-field type intra-body communication channel,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS '09), pp. 221–224, November 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Zhu, R. Xu, and J. Yuan, “High speed intra-body communication for personal health care,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC '09), pp. 709–712, IEEE, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, September 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. K. Fujii, M. Takahashi, and K. Ito, “Electric field distributions of wearable devices using the human body as a transmission channel,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2080–2087, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. S. Wegmueller, S. Huclova, J. Froehlich et al., “Galvanic coupling enabling wireless implant communications,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 2618–2625, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. S. Wegmüller, Intra-body communication for biomedical sensor networks [Ph.D. thesis], Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH, Zürich, Switzerland, 2007.