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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015, Article ID 345137, 11 pages
Research Article

Designs and Performance Characteristics of Coated Nanotoroid Antennas

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China
2Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Arizona, 1230 E. Speedway, Tucson, AZ 85721-0104, USA
3Ministry of Information of the Navy Command, No. 19 West Sanhuan Road, Beijing 100036, China

Received 16 February 2015; Accepted 27 May 2015

Academic Editor: Xianming Qing

Copyright © 2015 Sami Ur Rehman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The electromagnetic properties of a toroidal coated nanoparticle (T-CNP) antenna with an active core (doped with rare earth erbium Er3+ ions) are investigated. It is demonstrated that the active T-CNP acts as a strong dipole radiator at its resonance frequency when it is excited by a plane wave or an electric Hertzian dipole (EHD) radiating element. It is shown that in comparison to being a passive structure, the plane wave scattering cross section of the T-CNP can be increased by nearly 108 dBsm at its resonance frequency when it is active. Moreover, it is further demonstrated that the maximum peak of the power radiated by an EHD element in the presence of a properly designed active T-CNP is more than 120 dB over its value when radiating in free space; that is, its Purcell factor is 1012.