Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015, Article ID 345137, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/345137
Research Article

Designs and Performance Characteristics of Coated Nanotoroid Antennas

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China
2Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Arizona, 1230 E. Speedway, Tucson, AZ 85721-0104, USA
3Ministry of Information of the Navy Command, No. 19 West Sanhuan Road, Beijing 100036, China

Received 16 February 2015; Accepted 27 May 2015

Academic Editor: Xianming Qing

Copyright © 2015 Sami Ur Rehman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photo thermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1578–1586, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Gordon and R. W. Ziolkowski, “CNP optical metamaterials,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 6692–6716, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. García-Cámara, F. Moreno, F. González, and O. J. F. Martin, “Light scattering by an array of electric and magnetic nanoparticles,” Optics Express, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 10001–10015, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. J. Halas, “Plasmonics: an emerging field fostered by nano letters,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 3816–3822, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. W. H. Lin, N. A. Lewinski, J. L. West, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, “Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 10, no. 6, Article ID 064035, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. X. Liu and Q. Huo, “A washing-free and amplification-free one-step homogeneous assay for protein detection using gold nanoparticle probes and dynamic light scattering,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 349, no. 1-2, pp. 38–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21793–21800, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 34, pp. 3504–3509, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Materials, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 205–213, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, “Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 99, no. 5, Article ID 053903, 4 pages, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Grbic, L. Jiang, and R. Merlin, “Near-field plates: subdiffraction focusing with patterned surfaces,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5875, pp. 511–513, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nature Photonics, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 388–394, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. A. Gordon and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Investigating functionalized active coated nano-particles for use in nano-sensing applications,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 20, pp. 12562–12582, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. A. Gordon and R. W. Ziolkowski, “The design and simulated performance of a coated nano-particle laser,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 2622–2653, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. I. Stockman, “The spaser as a nanoscale quantum generator and ultrafast amplifier,” Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, vol. 12, no. 2, Article ID 024004, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Liberal, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Induction theorem analysis of resonant nanoparticles: design of a Huygens source nanoparticle laser,” Physical Review Applied, vol. 1, no. 4, Article ID 044002, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. S. Arslanagić, R. W. Ziolkowski, and O. Breinbjerg, “Radiation properties of an electric Hertzian dipole located near-by concentric metamaterial spheres,” Radio Science, vol. 42, Article ID RS6S16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. S. Arslanagić and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Active coated nano-particle excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole-resonance and transparency effects,” Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, vol. 12, no. 2, Article ID 024014, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Geng, R. W. Ziolkowski, S. Cambell, R. Jin, and X. Liang, “Studies of nanometer antennas incorporating gain material using CST,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting (APSURSI '11), pp. 1624–1627, Spokane, Wash, USA, July 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Geng, R. W. Ziolkowski, R. Jin, and X. Liang, “Numerical study of the near-field and far-field properties of active open cylindrical coated nanoparticle antennas,” IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1093–1110, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Geng, R. W. Ziolkowski, R. Jin, and X. Liang, “Detailed performance characteristics of vertically polarized, cylindrical, active coated nano-particle antennas,” Radio Science, vol. 47, Article ID RS2013, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. J. Geng, D. Chen, R. Jin, X. Liang, J. Tang, and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Study of active coated nano-toroid antennas,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT '13), pp. 154–157, Karlsruhe, Germany, March 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Arslanagić and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Influence of active nano particle size and material composition on multiple quantum emitter enhancements: their enhancement and jamming effects,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 149, pp. 85–99, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. Arslanagić and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Jamming of quantum emitters by active coated nan-oparticles,” IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 19, no. 3, Article ID 4800506, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 95, no. 1, Article ID 017402, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 9, Article ID 093120, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Kuhn, U. Hkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nano antenna,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 97, no. 1, Article ID 017402, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 98, no. 26, Article ID 266802, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Physical Review B, vol. 71, no. 23, Article ID 235420, pp. 235–420, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5728, pp. 1607–1609, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 9144–9154, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 Resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 28–33, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. H. Taminiau, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “A monopole antenna at optical frequencies: single-molecule near-field measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 3010–3017, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. James Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single ‘bowtie’ nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 957–961, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, “Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 361–364, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 355–360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nano antenna in the optical domain,” Physical Review B, vol. 76, no. 24, Article ID 245403, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 10858–10866, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Yang, J. Zhang, X. Wu, and Q. Gong, “Electric field enhancing properties of the V-shaped optical resonant antennas,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 25, pp. 16852–16859, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Optics Letters, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1623–1625, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2871–2875, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu et al., “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 21, pp. 13682–13688, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 26, pp. 17736–17746, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Hertzian plasmonic nanodimer as an efficient optical nanoantenna,” Physical Review B—Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 78, no. 19, Article ID 195111, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nature Photonics, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 307–310, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: engineering optical nanoantennas,” Nature Photonics, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 270–272, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, “Tunable composite nanoparticle for plasmonics,” Optics Letters, vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 2750–2752, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Tunable and augmented plasmon resonances of Au/SiO2/Au nanodisks,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, no. 6, Article ID 063118, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Merlein, M. Kahl, A. Zuschlag et al., “Nanomechanical control of an optical antenna,” Nature Photonics, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 230–233, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Khlebtsov, E. Panfilova, V. Khanadeev et al., “Nanocomposites containing silica-coated gold-silver nanocages and Yb-2,4-dimethoxyhematoporphyrin: multifunctional capability of IR-luminescence detection, photosensitization, and photothermolysis,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 7077–7089, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. https://www.cst.com/Products/CSTMWS/Solvers.
  52. T. Weiland, “Time domain electromagnetic field computation with finite difference methods,” International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 295–319, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2005.
  54. S. D. Campbell and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Impact of strong localization of the incident power density on the nano-amplifier characteristics of active coated nano-particles,” Optics Communications, vol. 285, no. 16, pp. 3341–3352, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus