Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2017, Article ID 2390808, 45 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2390808
Review Article

Wideband and UWB Antennas for Wireless Applications: A Comprehensive Review

Department of Information Engineering, Electronics and Telecommunications, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Renato Cicchetti; ti.1amorinu.eid@ittehccic

Received 22 July 2016; Revised 23 November 2016; Accepted 19 December 2016; Published 20 February 2017

Academic Editor: Ahmed Toaha Mobashsher

Copyright © 2017 Renato Cicchetti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. W. Leung, E. H. Lim, and X. S. Fang, “Dielectric resonator antennas: from the basic to the aesthetic,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 2181–2193, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y. Liu, L. Si, M. Wei et al., “Some recent developments of microstrip antenna,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, Article ID 428284, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. T. Mobashsher and A. Abbosh, “Utilizing symmetry of planar ultra-wideband antennas for size reduction and enhanced performance,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 153–166, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Cicchetti, A. Faraone, D. Caratelli, and M. Simeoni, “Wideband, multiband, tunable, and smart antenna systems for mobile and UWB wireless applications 2014,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2015, Article ID 536031, 3 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. https://transition.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Engineering_Technology/Orders/2002/fcc02048.pdf.
  6. G. A. Deschamps, “Microstrip microwave antennas,” in Proceedings of the 3rd USAF Symposium on Antennas, October 1953.
  7. Y. Zhang, J. Liu, Z. Liang, and Y. Long, “A wide-bandwidth monopolar patch antenna with dual-ring couplers,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2014, Article ID 980120, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. ANSYS HFSS, http://www.ansys.com/Products/Electronics/ANSYS-HFSS.
  9. D. Caratelli, R. Cicchetti, G. Bit-Babik, and A. Faraone, “A perturbed E-shaped patch antenna for wideband WLAN applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1871–1874, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Caratelli and R. Cicchetti, “A full-wave analysis of interdigital capacitors for planar integrated circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 1598–1601, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Caratelli, R. Cicchetti, G. Bit-Babik, and A. Faraone, “Circuit model and near-field behavior of a novel patch antenna for WWLAN applications,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 97–100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Mandal and P. P. Sarkar, “High gain wide-band u-shaped patch antennas with modified ground planes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 2279–2282, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Agrawal, P. K. Singhal, and A. Jain, “Design and optimization of a microstrip patch antenna for increased bandwidth,” International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 529–535, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. K. Pavuluri, C. Wang, and A. J. Sangster, “High efficiency wideband aperture-coupled stacked patch antennas assembled using millimeter thick micromachined polymer structures,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3616–3621, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. M. Kovitz and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Using thick substrates and capacitive probe compensation to enhance the bandwidth of traditional CP patch antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 4970–4979, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Noguchi, H. Rajagopalan, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Design of wideband/dual-band E-shaped patch antennas with the transmission line mode theory,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 1183–1192, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  17. G. Dubost and S. Zisler, Antennas a Large Band, Masson, New York, NY, USA, 1976.
  18. R. Cicchetti, O. Testa, and D. Caratelli, “A numerical procedure for the analysis of EMC/EMI problems in radio communication systems operating in complex environments,” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1269–1280, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Valderas, B. Sedano, A. Garcia-Alonso, and J. I. Sancho, “Synthesis of TLM-based UWB planar monopole impedance bandwidth,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2874–2879, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Valderas, J. Legarda, I. Gutiérrez, and J. I. Sancho, “Design of UWB folded-plate monopole antennas based on TLM,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1676–1687, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. J. Ammann and Z. N. Chen, “Wideband monopole antennas for multi-band wireless systems,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 146–150, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. J. Ammann, “Control of the impedance bandwidth of wideband planar monopole antennas using a beveling technique,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 229–232, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S.-Y. Suh, W. L. Stutzman, and W. A. Davis, “A new ultrawideband printed monopole antenna: the planar Inverted Cone Antenna (PICA),” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1361–1365, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. X.-F. Bai, S.-S. Zhong, and X.-L. Liang, “Leaf-shaped monopole antenna with extremely wide bandwidth,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1247–1250, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. CST Microwave Studio, https://www.cst.com/.
  26. Y. Chen, S. Yang, S. He, and Z. Nie, “Design and analysis of wideband planar monopole antennas using the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, no. 15, pp. 95–112, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. J. Ammann and Z. N. Chen, “A wide-band shorted planar monopole with bevel,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 901–903, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K.-L. Wong, C.-H. Wu, and S.-W. Su, “Ultrawide-band square planar metal-plate monopole antenna with a trident-shaped feeding strip,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1262–1269, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards, http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/16/index.html.
  30. S. Ghosh, “Design of planar crossed monopole antenna for ultrawideband communication,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 10, pp. 548–551, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. WIPL-D Pro. Information, http://www.wipl-d.com/.
  32. W.-S. Lee, K.-S. Oh, and J.-W. Yu, “A wideband planar monopole antenna array with circular polarized and band-notched characteristics,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 128, pp. 381–398, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Chen, Y.-C. Jiao, F.-C. Ren, and L. Zhang, “Broadband monopole antenna with wideband circular polarization,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, vol. 32, pp. 19–28, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Singh and S. Singh, “A novel CPW-fed wideband printed monopole antenna with DGS,” AEU—International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 299–306, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S.-S. Zhong, X.-L. Liang, and W. Wang, “Compact elliptical monopole antenna with impedance bandwidth in excess of 21:1,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 3082–3085, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Wu, J. Ke, C. Jou, and C. Wang, “Microstrip-fed broadband circularly polarised monopole antenna,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 518–525, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. K. H. Chiang and K. W. Tam, “Microstrip monopole antenna with enhanced bandwidth using defected ground structure,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 7, pp. 532–535, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Ding, C. Gao, T. Yu, and D. Qu, “Broadband C-shaped circularly polarized monopole antenna,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 785–790, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. A. Antoniades and G. V. Eleftheriades, “A compact multiband monopole antenna with a defected ground plane,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 7, pp. 652–655, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Li and W. Yu, “A miniaturized triple band monopole antenna for WLAN and WiMAX applications,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2015, Article ID 146780, 5 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Verma and P. Kumar, “Compact arc-shaped antenna with binomial curved conductor-backed plane for multiband wireless applications,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 351–359, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. W. J. Krzysztofik, “Modified Sierpinski fractal monopole for ISM-bands handset applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 606–615, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. A. Antoniades and G. V. Eleftheriades, “A multiband monopole antenna with an embedded reactance-cancelling transmission-line matching network,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 9, pp. 1107–1110, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. G. N. Alsath and M. Kanagasabai, “A shared-aperture multiservice antenna for automotive communications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 1417–1420, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. N. A. Abbasi and R. J. Langley, “Multiband-integrated antenna/artificial magnetic conductor,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 711–717, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. F. Abutarboush and A. Shamim, “Wide frequency independently controlled dual-band inkjet-printed antenna,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 52–56, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Yao, X. Wang, and J. Yu, “Multiband planar monopole antenna for LTE MIMO systems,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, Article ID 890705, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. F. Paredes, G. Zamora, S. Zufanelli, F. J. Herraiz-Martínez, J. Bonache, and F. Martín, “Recent advances in multiband printed antennas based on metamaterial loading,” Advances in OptoElectronics, vol. 2012, Article ID 968780, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. R. Melo, M. N. Kawakatsu, D. C. Nascimento, and V. Dmitriev, “A planar monopole UWB antennas with rounded patch and ground plane possessing improved impedance matching,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 335–338, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. H. Choi, J. K. Park, S. K. Kim, and J. Y. Park, “A new ultra-wideband antenna for UWB applications,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 399–401, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Verma and P. Kumar, “Printed Newton's egg curved monopole antenna for ultrawideband applications,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 278–286, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Liu, K. P. Esselle, S. G. Hay, and S. Zhong, “Effects of printed UWB antenna miniaturization on pulse fidelity and pattern stability,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 3903–3910, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. Ge and K. M. Luk, “A magneto-electric dipole for unidirectional UWB communications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 5762–5765, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. T. Mobashsher and A. Abbosh, “Three-dimensional folded antenna with ultra-wideband performance, directional radiation and compact size,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–179, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. S. Reddy, A. Kamma, S. Kharche, J. Mukherjee, and S. K. Mishra, “Cross-configured directional UWB antennas for multidirectional pattern diversity characteristics,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 853–858, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Elsherbini, J. Wu, and K. Sarabandi, “Dual polarized wideband directional coupled sectorial loop antennas for radar and mobile base-station applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1505–1513, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  57. A. T. Mobashsher and A. M. Abbosh, “Performance of directional and omnidirectional antennas in wideband head imaging,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 15, pp. 1618–1621, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. Y. Zhu, F. S. Zhang, C. Lin, Q. Zhang, and J. X. Huang, “A novel dual band-notched monopole antenna for ultra-wideband application,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, vol. 16, pp. 109–117, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. Eshtiaghi, R. Zaker, J. Nouronia, and C. Ghobadi, “UWB semi-elliptical printed monopole antenna with subband rejection filter,” AEU—International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 133–141, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. Dong, S. Chen, Z. Liao, and G. Liu, “A CPW-fed dual-band-notched antenna with sharp skirt selectivity for UWB applications,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2014, Article ID 629387, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Draskovic, J. R. O. Fernandez, and C. Briso Rodríguez, “Planar ultrawideband antenna with photonically controlled notched bands,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 924768, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. W. T. Li, X. W. Shi, and Y. Q. Hei, “Novel planar UWB monopole antenna with triple band-notched characteristics,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 8, pp. 1094–1098, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M.-C. Tang, T. Shi, and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Planar ultrawideband antennas with improved realized gain performance,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  64. R. Azim, M. T. Islam, and A. T. Mobashsher, “Design of a dual band-notch UWB slot antenna by means of simple parasitic slits,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 12, pp. 1412–1415, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Q. H. Abbasi, M. U. Rehman, X. Yang, A. Alomainy, K. Qaraqe, and E. Serpedin, “Ultrawideband band-notched flexible antenna for wearable applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 12, no. 417, pp. 1606–1609, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. Azim, M. T. Islam, and A. T. Mobashsher, “Dual band-notch UWB antenna with single tri-arm resonator,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 670–673, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. Y. F. Wang, T. A. Denidni, Q. S. Zeng, and G. Wei, “Band-notched UWB rectangular dielectric resonator antenna,” Electronics Letters, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 483–484, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. K. Horestani, Z. Shaterian, J. Naqui, F. Martín, and C. Fumeaux, “Reconfigurable and tunable S-shaped split-ring resonators and application in band-notched UWB antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 3766–3776, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  69. A. Ghobadi and M. Dehmollaian, “A printed circularly polarized Y-shaped monopole antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 11, pp. 22–25, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y.-M. Cai, K. Li, Y.-Z. Yin, and W. Hu, “Broadband circularly polarized printed antenna with branched microstrip feed,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 674–677, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J.-Y. Sze, Z.-H. Zhou, C.-I. G. Hsu, and C.-H. Lin, “Broadband circularly polarized printed monopole antenna with unidirectional radiation patterns,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1535–1540, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Koohestani, M. N. Moghadasi, and B. S. Virdee, “Miniature microstrip-fed ultra-wideband printed monopole antenna with a partial ground plane structure,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 5, no. 14, pp. 1683–1689, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Yang and A. Kishk, “A novel low-profile compact directional ultra-wideband antenna: the self-grounded Bow-Tie antenna,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1214–1220, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. Liu, S. Zhong, and K. P. Esselle, “A printed elliptical monopole antenna with modified feeding structure for bandwidth enhancement,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 667–670, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. Kumar and S. Gaikwad, “On the design of nano-arm fractal antenna for UWB wireless applications,” Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 158–172, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. Azim, M. T. Islam, and N. Misran, “Ground modified double-sided printed compact UWB antenna,” Electronics Letters, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 9–11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. T. Islam, R. Azim, and A. T. Mobashsher, “Triple band-notched planar UWB antenna using parasitic strips,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 129, pp. 161–179, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. Kumar and K. V. Machavaram, “Microstrip filter with defected ground structure: a close perspective,” International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 589–602, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. Liu, K. P. Esselle, S. G. Hay, and S. S. Zhong, “Study of an extremely wideband monopole antenna with triple band-notched charactersistics,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 123, pp. 143–158, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Y. Xiao, Z.-Y. Wang, J. Li, Z.-L. Yuan, and A. K. Qin, “Two-step beveled UWB printed monopole antenna with band notch,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2014, Article ID 173704, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. O. Ahmed and A.-R. Sebak, “A printed monopole antenna with two steps and a circular slot for UWB applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 7, pp. 411–413, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. V. Sipal, B. Allen, D. Edwards, and B. Honary, “Twenty years of ultrawideband: opportunities and challenges,” IET Communications, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1147–1162, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  83. P. Bernardi, R. Cicchetti, and O. Testa, “An accurate UTD model for the analysis of complex indoor radio environments in microwave WLAN systems,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1509–1520, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. W. S. Lee, S. Y. Cha, K. S. Oh, and J. W. Yu, “Wideband circularly polarised planar monopole antenna array,” Electronics Letters, vol. 47, no. 25, pp. 1358–1360, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. B. Li, Y. Ding, and Y.-Z. Yin, “A novel dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2016, Article ID 9071610, 8 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. T. Islam and R. Azim, “Recent trends in printed ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas,” in Advancement in Microstrip Antennas with Recent Applications, A. Kishk, Ed., pp. 173–201, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  87. IE3D Software. Information, https://www.mentor.com/pcb/xpedition/simulation.
  88. H.-W. Liu, C.-H. Ku, T.-S. Wang, and C.-F. Yang, “Compact monopole antenna with band-notched characteristic for UWB applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 9, pp. 397–400, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. Guha, S. Biswas, and C. Kumar, “Printed antenna designs using defected ground structures: a review of fundamentals and state-of-the-art developments,” in Proceedings of the Forum for Electromagnetic Research Methods and Application Technologies (FERMAT '14), vol. 2, pp. 1–13, April 2014.
  90. S. S. Tiang, M. S. Hathal, N. S. Nik Anwar, M. F. Ain, and M. Z. Abdullah, “Development of a compact wide-slot antenna for early stage breast cancer detection featuring circular array full-view geometry,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2014, Article ID 309321, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. R. Azim and M. T. Islam, “Printed wide slot ultra-wideband antenna,” in Advancement in Microstrip Antennas with Recent Applications, A. Kishk, Ed., chapter 7, InTech, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  92. S. Zhong, X. Yan, and X. Liang, “UWB planar antenna technology,” Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in China, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 136–144, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. X.-L. Liang, T. A. Denidni, L.-N. Zhang, R.-H. Jin, J.-P. Geng, and Q. Yu, “Printed binomial-curved slot antennas for various wideband applications,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1058–1065, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T. Karacolak and E. Topsakal, “A double-sided rounded bow-tie antenna (DSRBA) for UWB communication,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 446–449, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. G. Cappelletti, D. Caratelli, R. Cicchetti, and M. Simeoni, “A low-profile printed drop-shaped dipole antenna for wide-band wireless applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 3526–3535, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. Cappelletti, D. Caratelli, and R. Cicchetti, “A locally conformal FDTD analysis of a thin printed antenna for wideband wireless applications,” International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 257–270, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. P. Bernardi, R. Cicchetti, S. Pisa, E. Pittella, E. Piuzzi, and O. Testa, “Design, realization, and test of a UWB radar sensor for breath activity monitoring,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 584–596, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. X. N. Low, Z. N. Chen, and T. S. P. See, “A UWB dipole antenna with enhanced impedance and gain performance,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 2959–2966, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. X. Ta and I. Park, “Cavity-backed angled-dipole antennas for millimeter-wave wireless applications,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2016, Article ID 5083807, 11 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. K. Li, C. Zhu, L. Li, Y.-M. Cai, and C.-H. Liang, “Design of electrically small metamaterial antenna with ELC and EBG loading,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 12, pp. 678–681, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. M. S. A. Rani, S. K. A. Rahim, M. R. Kamarudin, T. Peter, S. W. Cheung, and B. M. Saad, “Electromagnetic behaviors of thin film CPW-fed CSRR loaded on UWB transparent antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 1239–1242, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. M. Islam, M. T. Islam, M. Samsuzzaman, and M. R. I. Faruque, “Compact metamaterial antenna for UWB applications,” Electronics Letters, vol. 51, no. 16, pp. 1222–1224, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. J. Zhong, Y. Huang, G. Wen, H. Sun, O. Gordon, and W. Zhu, “Dual-band negative permittivity metamaterial based on cross circular loop resonator with shorting stubs,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 11, pp. 803–806, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. A. W. Nordin, M. T. Islam, and N. Misran, “Design of a compact ultrawideband metamaterial antenna based on split-ring resonator and capacitively loaded strips unit cell,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 136, pp. 157–173, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. W. Liu, Z. N. Chen, and X. Qing, “60-GHz thin broadband high-gain LTCC metamaterial-mushroom antenna array,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 4592–4601, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. M. Alibakhshi-Kenari and M. Naser-Moghadasi, “Novel UWB miniaturized integrated antenna based on CRLH metamaterial transmission lines,” AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 1143–1149, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. Alibakhshi-Kenari, M. Naser-Moghadasi, R. A. Sadeghzadeh, and B. S. Virdee, “Metamaterial-based antennas for integration in UWB transceivers and portable microwave handsets,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 88–96, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. R. K. Saraswat and M. Kumar, “Miniaturized slotted ground UWB antenna loaded with metamaterial for WLAN and WiMax applications,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 65, pp. 65–80, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. IEEE, “Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) used in or around a body,” IEEE P802.15.6/D01, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  110. F. Declercq, I. Couckuyt, H. Rogier, and T. Dhaene, “Environmental high frequency characterization of fabrics based on a novel surrogate modelling antenna technique,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 5200–5213, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. R. Salvado, C. Loss, R. Gonçalves, and P. Pinho, “Textile materials for the design of wearable antennas: a survey,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 15841–15857, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. Y. Ouyang and W. J. Chappell, “High frequency properties of electro-textiles for wearable antenna applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 381–389, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. N. Chahat, M. Zhadobov, S. A. Muhammad, L. Le Coq, and R. Sauleau, “60-GHz textile antenna array for body-centric communications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1816–1824, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. S. Sankaralingam and B. Gupta, “Determination of dielectric constant of fabric materials and their use as substrates for design and development of antennas for wearable applications,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 3122–3130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. S. Lemey, F. Declercq, and H. Rogier, “Dual-band substrate integrated waveguide textile antenna with integrated solar harvester,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 269–272, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. G. Monti, L. Corchia, and L. Tarricone, “UHF wearable rectenna on textile materials,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 3869–3873, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. M. Mantash, A.-C. Tarot, S. Collardey, and K. Mahdjoubi, “Investigation of flexible textile antennas and AMC reflectors,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, Article ID 236505, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. S. E. Morris, Y. Bayram, L. Zhang, Z. Wang, M. Shtein, and J. L. Volakis, “High-strength, metalized fibers for conformal load bearing antenna applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 3458–3462, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. A. Tsolis, W. G. Whittow, A. A. Alexandridis, and J. Y. C. Vardaxoglou, “Embroidery and related manufacturing techniques for wearable antennas: challenges and opportunities,” Electronics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 314–338, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. B. Sanz-Izquierdo, J. C. Batchelor, and M. I. Sobhy, “Button antenna on textiles for wireless local area network on body applications,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1980–1987, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. B. Mandal and S. K. Parui, “Wearable tri-band SIW based antenna on leather substrate,” Electronics Letters, vol. 51, no. 20, pp. 1563–1564, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. S. Zhu and R. Langley, “Dual-band wearable textile antenna on an EBG substrate,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 926–935, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. H. S. Zhang, S. L. Chai, K. Xiao, and L. F. Ye, “Numerical and experimental analysis of wideband E-shaped patch textile antenna,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 45, pp. 163–178, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. A. R. Osman, M. K. A. Rahim, N. A. Samsuri, M. K. Elbasheer, and M. E. Ali, “Textile UWB antenna bending and wet performances,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, Article ID 251682, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. P. J. Soh, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, S. L. Ooi, and M. R. N. Husna, “Wearable dual-band Sierpinski fractal PIFA using conductive fabric,” Electronics Letters, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 365–367, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. M. E. Jalil, M. Kamal, A. Rahim, M. Azfar Abdullah, and O. Ayop, “Compact CPW-fed ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna using denim textile material,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP '12), pp. 30–33, Nagoya, Japan, October-November 2012.
  127. N. Lacerda Silva, L. M. Gonçalves, and H. Carvalho, “Deposition of conductive materials on textile and polymeric flexible substrates,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 635–643, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. H. A. Rahim, M. F. Abd Malek, I. Adam et al., “Effect of different substrate materials on a wearable textile monopole antenna,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Wireless Technology and Applications (ISWTA '12), pp. 245–247, Bandung, Indonesia, September 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. S. Shakhirul, M. Jusoh, A. Sahadah, C. M. Nor, and H. A. Rahim, “Embroidered wearable textile antenna on bending and wet performances for UWB reception,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 2158–2163, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. http://www.lairdtech.com/products/3055-233.
  131. D. H. Werner and Z. H. Jiang, Electromagnetics of Body-Area Networks: Antennas, Propagation, and RF Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. http://www.statex.biz/images/pdf/woven/ShieldexNora_02.05.13.pdf.
  133. Q. Bai, J. Rigelsford, and R. Langley, “Crumpling of microstrip antenna array,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 4567–4576, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. http://www.stockwell.com/data-sheets/3027217-nickel-polyester-nonwoven.pdf.
  135. http://th-energy.hu/docs/Conductive%20Metallized%20Products_2.pdf.
  136. http://www.lessemf.com/fabric.html.
  137. M. I. Jais, M. F. Malek, M. F. Jamlos, and M. Jusoh, “Conductive E-textile analysis of 1.575 GHz rectangular antenna with H-slot for GPS application,” in Proceedings of the Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC '12), IEEE, Leicestershire, UK, November 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. D. Baiya, On the development of conductive textile antennas [M.S. thesis], University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn, USA, 2014, http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_gradthes/3138.
  139. B. Ivsic, D. Bonefacic, and J. Bartolic, “Considerations on embroidered textile antennas for wearable applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 12, pp. 1708–1711, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. M. L. Scarpello, I. Kazani, C. Hertleer, H. Rogier, and D. V. Ginste, “Stability and efficiency of screen-printed wearable and washable antennas,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 11, pp. 838–841, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. J. Lilja, V. Pynttäri, T. Kaija et al., “Body-worn antennas making a splash: lifejacket-integrated antennas for global search and rescue satellite system,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 324–341, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. T. Kellomäki, J. Virkki, S. Merilampi, and L. Ukkonen, “Towards washable wearable antennas: a comparison of coating materials for screen-printed textile-based UHF RFID tags,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, Article ID 476570, 11 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. L. Zhang, Z. Wang, and J. L. Volakis, “Textile antennas and sensors for body-worn applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 11, pp. 1690–1693, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. P. B. Samal, P. J. Soh, and G. A. E. Vandenbosch, “UWB all-textile antenna with full ground plane for off-body WBAN communications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 102–108, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. L. A. Yimdjo Poffelie, P. J. Soh, S. Yan, and G. A. Vandenbosch, “A high-fidelity all-textile UWB antenna with low back radiation for off-body WBAN applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 757–760, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  146. S. Lemey, T. Castel, P. Van Torre et al., “Threefold rotationally symmetric SIW antenna array for ultra-short-range MIMO communication,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 1689–1699, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. P. B. Samal, P. J. Soh, and G. A. E. Vandenbosch, “A systematic design procedure for micro-strip-based unidirectional UWB antennas,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 143, pp. 105–130, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. S. Yan, P. J. Soh, and G. A. E. Vandenbosch, “Wearable dual-band composite right/ left-handed waveguide textile antenna for WLAN applications,” Electronics Letters, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 424–426, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. H. R. Khaleel, “Design and fabrication of compact inkjet printed antennas for integration within flexible and wearable electronics,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1722–1728, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. G. Q. Luo, Z. F. Hu, W. J. Li, X. H. Zhang, L. L. Sun, and J. F. Zheng, “Bandwidth-enhanced low-profile cavity-backed slot antenna by using hybrid SIW cavity modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1698–1704, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. D.-F. Guan, Z.-P. Qian, Y.-S. Zhang, and J. Jin, “High-gain SIW cavity-backed array antenna with wideband and low sidelobe characteristics,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 14, pp. 1774–1777, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. P. Wu, S. Liao, and Q. Xue, “A substrate integrated slot antenna array using simplified feeding network based on higher order cavity modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 126–135, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  153. Q. Wu, H. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Hong, “Low-profile circularly polarized cavity-backed antennas using SIW techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 2832–2839, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. O. Caytan, S. Lemey, S. Agneessens et al., “Half-mode substrate-integrated-waveguide cavity-backed slot antenna on cork substrate,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 15, pp. 162–165, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. O. Ishihara, T. Mori, H. Sawano, and M. Nakatani, “A highly stabilized GaAs FET oscillator using a dielectric resonator feedback circuit in 9–14 GHz,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 817–824, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. S. B. Cohn, “Microwave bandpass filters containing high-Q dielectric resonators,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 218–227, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. S. J. Ha, Y. D. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Choi, and U. S. Hong, “Dielectric resonator oscillator with balanced low noise amplifier,” Electronics Letters, vol. 38, no. 24, pp. 1542–1544, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. S. A. Long, M. W. McAllister, and L. C. Shen, “The resonant cylindrical dielectric cavity antenna,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 406–412, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. M. W. McAllister, S. A. Long, and G. L. Conway, “Rectangular dielectric resonator antenna,” Electronics Letters, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 218–219, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. M. W. Mcallister and S. A. Long, “Resonant hemispherical dielectric antenna,” Electronics Letters, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 657–659, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. K. W. Leung, K. M. Luk, E. K. N. Yung, and S. Lai, “Characteristics of a low-profile circular disk DR antenna with very high permittivity,” Electronics Letters, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 417–418, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. H. T. Hui, E. K. N. Yung, and K. W. Leung, “Numerical and experimental studies of a helical antenna loaded by a dielectric resonator,” Radio Science, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 295–304, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. S. M. Shum and K. M. Luk, “Analysis of aperture coupled rectangular dielectric resonator antenna,” Electronics Letters, vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 1726–1727, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. G. P. Junker, A. A. Kishk, and A. W. Glisson, “Input impedance of dielectric resonator antennas excited by a coaxial probe,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 960–966, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. A. A. Kishk, M. Cuhaci, A. Ittipiboon, and Y. M. M. Antar, “Slot excitation of the dielectric disk radiator,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 198–201, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. G. P. Junker, A. A. Kishk, and A. W. Glisson, “Numerical analysis of dielectric resonator antennas excited in quasi-TE modes,” Electronics Letters, vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1810–1811, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. I. A. Eshrah, A. A. Kishk, A. B. Yakovlev, and A. W. Glisson, “Theory and implementation of dielectric resonator antenna excited by a waveguide slot,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 483–494, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. R. K. Mongia, A. Ittipiboon, P. Bhartia, and M. Cuhaci, “Electric-monopole antenna using a dielectric ring resonator,” Electronics Letters, vol. 29, no. 17, pp. 1530–1531, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. A. Ittipiboon, R. K. Mongia, Y. M. M. Antar, P. Bhartia, and M. Cuhaci, “Aperture fed rectangular and triangular dielectric resonators for use as magnetic dipole antennas,” Electronics Letters, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2001–2002, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. R. K. Mongia and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas—a review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” International Journal of Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 230–247, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. A. B. Kakade and B. Ghosh, “Analysis of the rectangular waveguide slot coupled multilayer hemispherical dielectric resonator antenna,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 338–347, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. P. M. Jasmine, P. Abdulla, and P. M. Raphika, “Rectangular waveguide fed DRA using tapered waveguide section,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2025–2028, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. X.-Q. Sheng, K. W. Leung, and E. K.-N. Yung, “Analysis of waveguide-fed dielectric resonator antenna using a hybrid finite element method/moment method,” IEE Proceedings: Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 91–95, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. A. Perron, T. A. Denidni, and A. R. Sebak, “Circularly polarized microstrip/elliptical dielectric ring resonator antenna for millimeter-wave applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 9, pp. 783–786, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. O. G. Avădănei, M. G. Banciu, I. Nicolaescu, and L. Nedelcu, “Superior modes in high permittivity cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna excited by a central rectangular slot,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 5032–5038, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. M. Zou, J. Pan, and Z. Nie, “A wideband circularly polarized rectangular dielectric resonator antenna excited by an archimedean spiral slot,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 14, pp. 446–449, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. D. Hou, Y.-Z. Xiong, W.-L. Goh, S. Hu, W. Hong, and M. Madihian, “130-GHz on-chip meander slot antennas with stacked dielectric resonators in standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 4102–4109, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. D. Hou, W. Hong, W.-L. Goh et al., “D-band on-chip higher-order-mode dielectric-resonator antennas fed by half-mode cavity in CMOS technology,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 80–89, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. A. Rashidian, L. Shafai, and D. M. Klymyshyn, “Tall microstrip transmission lines for dielectric resonator antenna applications,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 112–124, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. A. Rashidian and D. M. Klymyshyn, “Compact wideband multimode dielectric resonator antennas fed with parallel standing strips,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 5021–5031, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. M. A. Saed and R. Yadla, “Microstrip-fed low profile and compact dielectric resonator antennas,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 56, pp. 151–162, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. L. Zou and C. Fumeaux, “A cross-shaped dielectric resonator antenna for multifunction and polarization diversity applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 10, pp. 742–745, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. M. Simeoni, R. Cicchetti, A. Yarovoy, and D. Caratelli, “Plastic-based supershaped dielectric resonator antennas for wide-band applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 4820–4825, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. D. Guha, A. Banerjee, C. Kumar, and Y. M. M. Antar, “New technique to excite higher-order radiating mode in a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 15–18, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. R. Cicchetti, A. Faraone, E. Miozzi, R. Ravanelli, and O. Testa, “A high-gain mushroom-shaped dielectric resonator antenna for wideband wireless applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 2848–2861, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. B. Mukherjee, P. Patel, and J. Mukherjee, “A novel cup-shaped inverted hemispherical dielectric resonator antenna for wideband applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 12, pp. 1240–1243, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. R. Cicchetti, E. Miozzi, and O. Testa, “A novel wideband multi-permittivity composite dielectric resonator antenna for wireless applications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-APS Topical Conference on Antennas and Propagation in Wireless Communications (APWC '16), pp. 70–73, Cairns, Australia, September 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  188. Y. Gao, Z. Feng, and L. Zhang, “Compact asymmetrical T-shaped dielectric resonator antenna for broadband applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1611–1615, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. B. Li and K. W. Leung, “Strip-fed rectangular dielectric resonator antennas with/without a parasitic patch,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 2200–2207, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. A. S. Al-Zoubi and A. A. Kishk, “Wide band strip-fed rectangular dielectric resonator antenna,” in Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP '09), pp. 2379–2382, Berlin, Germany, March 2009.
  191. D. Soren, R. Ghatak, R. K. Mishra, and D. R. Poddar, “Dielectric resonator antennas: designs and advances,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 195–213, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. M. Simeoni, R. Cicchetti, A. Yarovoy, and D. Caratelli, “Supershaped dielectric resonator antennas,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting (APSURSI '09), June 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. M. Simeoni, R. Cicchetti, A. Yarovoy, and D. Caratelli, “Circularly polarized supershaped dielectric resonator antennas for indoor ultra wide band applications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and CNC-USNC/URSI Radio Science Meeting—Leading the Wave (AP-S/URSI '10), pp. 1–4, Ontario, Canada, July 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. Y. Wang, T. A. Denidni, Q. Zeng, and G. Wei, “A wideband high-gain stacked cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, vol. 43, pp. 155–163, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. Y. M. Pan and K. W. Leung, “Wideband omnidirectional circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna with parasitic strips,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2992–2997, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. M. Abedian, S. K. A. Rahim, S. Danesh, S. Hakimi, L. Y. Cheong, and M. H. Jamaluddin, “Novel design of compact UWB dielectric resonator antenna with dual-band-rejection characteristics for WiMAX/WLAN bands,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 14, pp. 245–248, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. X. Li, Y. Yang, F. Gao, H. Ma, and X. Shi, “A compact dielectric resonator antenna excited by a planar monopole patch for wideband applications,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2016, Article ID 9734781, 9 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. Z. N. Chen, X. Qing, T. S. P. See, and W. K. Toh, “Antennas for WiFi connectivity,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 2322–2329, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. S. Gao, K. Clark, M. Unwin et al., “Antennas for modern small satellites,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 40–56, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. A. Perron, T. A. Denidni, and A.-R. Sebak, “High-gain hybrid dielectric resonator antenna for millimeter-wave applications: design and implementation,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 2882–2892, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. D. Guha, A. Banerjee, C. Kumar, and Y. M. M. Antar, “Higher order mode excitation for high-gain broadside radiation from cylindrical dielectric resonator antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. A. Petosa and S. Thirakoune, “Rectangular dielectric resonator antennas with enhanced gain,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1385–1389, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. Y. Ge, K. P. Esselle, and T. S. Bird, “Compact dielectric resonator antennas with ultrawide 60%–110% bandwidth,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 3445–3448, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. Skyworks Solutions, Inc., 2015, http://www.skyworksinc.com/.
  205. MACOM, 2015, http://www.macom.com/.
  206. G.-P. Gao, X. Yang, and J.-S. Zhang, “A printed volcano smoke antenna for UWB and WLAN communications,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, vol. 4, pp. 55–61, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  207. R. Azim, M. T. Islam, J. S. Mandeep, and A. T. Mobashsher, “A planar circular ring ultra-wideband antenna with dual band-notched characteristics,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 26, no. 14-15, pp. 2022–2032, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. F. Zhu, S. Gao, A. T. S. Ho et al., “Multiple band-notched UWB antenna with band-rejected elements integrated in the feed line,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3952–3960, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. P. Gao, S. He, X. Wei, Z. Xu, N. Wang, and Y. Zheng, “Compact printed UWB diversity slot antenna with 5.5-GHz band-notched characteristics,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 376–379, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. M. S. A. Rani, S. K. A. Rahim, M. R. Kamarudin, T. Peter, S. W. Cheung, and B. M. Saad, “Electromagnetic behaviors of thin film CPW-Fed CSRR loaded on UWB transparent antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 1239–1242, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. N. Jaglan, B. K. Kanaujia, S. D. Gupta, and S. Srivastava, “Triple band notched UWB antenna design using electromagnetic band gap structures,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 66, pp. 139–147, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  212. W. Wu, Y. Li, R. Wu, C. Shi, and T. Cui, “Band-notched UWB antenna with switchable and tunable performance,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2016, Article ID 9612987, 6 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar