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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2017, Article ID 2961090, 8 pages
Research Article

Attenuation by a Human Body and Trees as well as Material Penetration Loss in 26 and 39 GHz Millimeter Wave Bands

1School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
2State Key Laboratory of Wireless Mobile Communications, China Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT), Beijing 100191, China
3State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Wave, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Xiongwen Zhao; nc.ude.upecn@wxoahz

Received 13 October 2016; Revised 13 March 2017; Accepted 20 March 2017; Published 28 March 2017

Academic Editor: Stefan R. Panic

Copyright © 2017 Qi Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper investigates the attenuation by a human body and trees as well as material penetration loss at 26 and 39 GHz by measurements and theoretical modeling work. The measurements were carried out at a large restaurant and a university campus by using a time domain channel sounder. Meanwhile, the knife-edge (KE) model and one-cylinder and two-cylinder models based on uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) are applied to model the shape of a human body and predict its attenuation in theory. The ITU (International Telecommunication Union) and its modified models are used to predict the attenuation by trees. The results show that the upper bound of the KE model is better to predict the attenuation by a human body compared with UTD one-cylinder and two-cylinder models at both 26 and 39 GHz. ITU model overestimates the attenuation by willow trees, and a modified attenuation model by trees is proposed based on our measurements at 26 GHz. Penetration loss for materials such as wood and glass with different types and thicknesses is measured as well. The measurement and modeling results in this paper are significant and necessary for simulation and planning of fifth-generation (5G) mm-wave radio systems in ITU recommended frequency bands at 26 and 39 GHz.