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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2017, Article ID 3687293, 11 pages
Research Article

A Time Modulated Printed Dipole Antenna Array for Beam Steering Application

1Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, India
2Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Silchar 788010, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Banani Basu; ni.oohay@inanab_usab

Received 5 October 2016; Revised 18 December 2016; Accepted 4 January 2017; Published 16 February 2017

Academic Editor: Sotirios K. Goudos

Copyright © 2017 Ruchi Gahley and Banani Basu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents time modulated beam steered antenna array without phase shifters. The beam steering is analyzed considering a two-element time modulated antenna array (TMAA) of printed dipoles with microstrip via-hole balun. The proposed array resonates at the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) radio bands, 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz, and offers wide bandwidth inherited due to modified structure of ground plane. Array elements are excited by complex exponential excitation signal through broadband power divider and radio frequency (RF) switches to achieve amplitude and phase variation without phase shifters. Differential Evolution algorithm is used to modify the time sequences of the RF switches connected to the antennas to generate radiation pattern with optimum dynamic efficiency by suppressing sideband radiations. Also switch-on time instant of RF switch connected to the subsequent element is modulated to steer the beam towards different directions. The proposed prototype is fabricated followed by parametric optimization. The fabrication results agree significantly well with simulated results.