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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2018, Article ID 7595363, 7 pages
Research Article

An Electrically Actuated Liquid-Metal Gain-Reconfigurable Antenna

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2540 Dole St., Honolulu, HI 96822, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to George B. Zhang; ude.iiawah@zegroeg

Received 27 December 2017; Accepted 11 March 2018; Published 15 April 2018

Academic Editor: Chien-Jen Wang

Copyright © 2018 George B. Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A tunable liquid-metal antenna demonstrating gain reconfigurability is presented. This antenna uses a reconfigurable stub made with the liquid metal Galinstan. Using continuous electrowetting, a 60 Hz signal with an amplitude of 1 Vpp and 75% duty cycle can actuate the Galinstan continuously along a channel, tuning the stub length and antenna gain. Zero external power is required to maintain the position of the slug. The 5 GHz antenna offers more than 10 dB of analog gain tuning, from −5.90 to 4.43 dB.