Table of Contents
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1876046, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1876046
Research Article

Chemical Characteristics of Rainwater in Sumatera, Indonesia, during 2001–2010

The Center for Atmospheric Science and Technology-LAPAN, Jalan Dr. Djundjunan 133, Bandung 40173, Indonesia

Received 6 December 2015; Revised 29 February 2016; Accepted 28 March 2016

Academic Editor: Panagiotis Nastos

Copyright © 2016 Tuti Budiwati et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The chemical composition of acid deposition shows that ammonium and chloride concentrations as the indicators of forest fires were higher than sulfate and nitrate in Sumatera areas such as Medan, Lampung, Palembang, and Kototabang. Chloride had higher concentration than sodium (Na+ sea originated) with the ratio value of Cl/Na+ > 1.16 found in Medan and Palembang. Ionic compositions from the lowest to the highest concentration in Kototabang were H+ > Cl > Na+ > > nss-Ca2+ > K+ > > nss- > Mg2+ > ss- > ss-Ca2+. Acid rain takes place if the acid compounds such as sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides dominate. If the ratio value of /(nss- + ) < 0.5 then it indicates that nss- is higher than . Between 2001 and 2010 it was found that the frequency value of /(nss- + ) < 0.5 was 97% from annual mean of 34 pieces of data in Medan, Kototabang, Lampung, and Palembang. Forest fires influence was more dominant than anthropogenic activities in Kototabang, Palembang and Lampung, except in Medan. It showed that ammonium was higher than content if the ratio value of /( + ) < 0.5 was 62%. For the period 2001–2010 the frequency value of /( + ) < 0.5 was 74% from total 34 annual mean pieces of data in four locations, that is, Medan, Kototabang, Palembang, and Lampung.