Table of Contents
International Journal of Bacteriology
Volume 2017, Article ID 4604789, 9 pages
Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Human and Animal Origins in Uganda

1Department of Disease Surveillance and Outbreak, Uganda National Health Laboratories Services, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 7272, Kampala, Uganda
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 1410, Mbarara, Uganda
3Division of Infectious Diseases, Med Biotech Laboratories, P.O. Box 9364, Kampala, Uganda
4Department of Biosecurity, Ecosystem and Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda

Correspondence should be addressed to Joel Bazira; moc.liamg@arizabj

Received 18 December 2016; Revised 25 March 2017; Accepted 24 April 2017; Published 28 May 2017

Academic Editor: Kumar Venkitanarayanan

Copyright © 2017 Atek Atwiine Kagirita et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR. Overall, 52% of the isolates belonged to serogroup D, 16% to serogroup E, 15% to poly F, H-S, and 12% to serogroup B. Serogroups A, C1, and C2 each consisted of only one isolate representing 5%. Virulence genes located on SPI-1 [spaN and sipB] and on SPI-2 [spiA] in addition to pagC and msgA were equally distributed in isolates obtained from all sources. Plasmid encoded virulence gene spvB was found in <5% of isolates from both human epidemic and animal origins whereas it occurred in 80% of clinical isolates. This study reveals that serogroup D is the predominant Salmonella serogroup in circulation and it is widely shared among animals and humans and calls for joint and coordinated surveillance for one health implementation in Uganda.