The Effect of Educational Intervention on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Women towards Breast Cancer ScreeningRead the full article
International Journal of Breast Cancer provides a forum for scientists, clinicians, and health care professionals working in breast cancer research and management. Research includes molecular pathology, genomics, genetic predisposition etc.
International Journal of Breast Cancer maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Evolution of Frozen Section in Carcinoma Breast: Systematic Review
Background. The frozen section (FS) has been a good technique in surgical management of breast lesions since many years. But complete agreement and cooperation have not been achieved everywhere among surgeons and pathologists especially in the developing countries. FS undergoes continuous criticism due to various shortcomings but continued to be evaluated especially in developing countries. Objectives. This review was conducted to synthesize information on the use of frozen section in carcinoma breast. Data Sources. The MEDLINE database for frozen section since its origin and its implication in recent breast surgery techniques was studied. Study Eligibility Criteria. Sixty-five articles were reviewed with complete analysis on FS in both benign and malignant breast lesions. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods. The analysis of frozen section was done as a diagnostic tool in breast lesions, margin status in breast conservative surgery in carcinoma breast, and sentinel lymph node and use of immunohistochemistry for sentinel lymph node FS. Results. It was analysed that the FS gives accurate results in margin status analysis, decreasing rerecurrence. Conclusion. The accuracy of FSA, low recurrence rate, avoidance of reoperation, and good cosmesis are the key points of its use in breast conservative surgery. Its use in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is equivocal. However, application of immunohistochemistry on frozen section of SLNB is an evolving trend in today’s era.
The Patient Health Engagement Model in Cancer Management: Effect of Physical Activity, Distress Management, and Social Support Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients
Background. Providing better care and encouraging behaviors promoting health are effective measures to manage breast cancer patients. The present research was conducted to carry out an intervention based on the PHE model to promote physical activity, distress management, social support, and quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods. This randomized control trial study was conducted on 123 women with breast cancer and their caregivers ( and ). Subjects entered the study from the oncology ward of a specialized clinic in Shiraz, Iran. The education was done through clips, pamphlets, and lectures in 8 sessions with a duration of 15 to 25 minutes. A posttest was carried out in the both groups in 2 times (the end and 3 months) after intervention. The SPSS25 software was used to analyze the data. Results. The mean and SD of age of group 1 were () and control group 2 (). The fiding showed a significant difference between the mean scores of distress management, social support, physical activity, and cancer self-efficacy in group 1 vs. group 2 after intervention (). Also, the educational intervention improved quality of life (). Conclusion. Intervention program based on the PHE model may facilitate the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in breast cancer patient. Thus, it appears that the PHE model might promote patients’ quality of life.
The Prognostic Potential of Neurokinin 1 Receptor in Breast Cancer and Its Relationship with Ki-67 Index
Background. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) is a promising biomarker and therapeutic target in breast cancer. This study was aimed at investigating the expression level of NK1R in breast cancer tissues and its relationship with proliferation index as measured by Ki-67, clinicopathological characteristics of patients, and overall survival rate. Methods. Immunohistochemical expression of NK1R and Ki-67 was measured in 164 paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues of four molecular subtypes (42 HER2-enriched, 40 luminal A, 42 luminal B, and 40 triple negative). NK1R was scored semiquantitatively, while Ki-67 was obtained by the percentage of total number of tumor cells with nuclear staining. The optimal cutoff values for NK1R and Ki-67 were assessed by Cutoff Finder. Pearson’s Chi-square () and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare the staining scores between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test was used for survival analysis. ANOVA and Student’s -test were used to compare group means. Results. A total of 164 patients were included in the study which represented females with invasive ductal carcinoma. NK1R was expressed at high levels in about 34% of investigated cases. The mean Ki-67 level was about 27% and 41.5% of sample had high Ki-67 (). NK1R expression levels were associated with higher tumor grade () and high Ki-67 (). NK1R expression negatively impacted overall survival in grade II tumors (). Conclusion. NK1R contributes to cellular proliferation and is associated with negative prognosis in breast cancer. These findings suggest the potential role of NK1R as a therapeutic target in breast cancer.
Association of XRCC3, XRCC4, BAX, and BCL-2 Polymorphisms with the Risk of Breast Cancer
Background. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Genetic risk factors associated with breast cancer incidence have been identified. Aims. This study is aimed at determining the association of XRCC3 Thr241Met (rs861539), XRCC4 G(-1394) T (rs6869366) DNA repair and BAX G(-248) A (rs4645878), and BCL2 C(-938) A (rs2279115) apoptotic gene polymorphisms with breast cancer. Materials and Methods. Genetic analysis was performed using peripheral blood samples. Gene polymorphisms were detected by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. 175 patients and 158 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Results. Breast cancer risk was 5.43 times more in individuals with AA genotype of Bax G(-248) A (rs4645878) (). The risk of metastasis was 11 times with this genotype. It was associated with 6 times more risk of having a tumor larger than 2 cm. The risk of breast cancer was 2.77 times more in individuals carrying the Met/Met genotype of XRCC3 Thr241Met (rs861539) (). The risk of having advanced clinical stage (stage III+IV) with the Met/Met genotype was 4 times more increased. No relationship with breast cancer was found with XRCC4 G(-1394) T (rs6869366) and BCL2 C(-938) A (rs2279115) gene polymorphisms. Conclusion. Multicenter trials using subjects with genetic variations are needed to establish the relationship between breast cancer and single gene polymorphism.
Assessment of Suspected Breast Lesions in Early-Stage Triple-Negative Breast Cancer during Follow-Up after Breast-Conserving Surgery Using Multiparametric MRI
Background. The local recurrence rate of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) can be as high as 12%.The standard treatment for early-stage TNBC is breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by postoperative radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. However, detection of the local recurrence of the disease after radiotherapy is a major issue. Objective. The aim of this study was at investigating the role of dynamic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during follow-up after BCS and radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy to differentiate between locoregional recurrence and postoperative fibrosis. Patients and Methods. This prospective study was conducted at the oncology, radiology, and pathology departments, Tanta University. It involved 50 patients with early-stage TNBC who were treated with BCS, followed by radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy. The suspected lesions were evaluated during the follow-up period by sonomammography. All patients were subjected to MRI, including conventional sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic postcontrast study. Results. Ten cases were confirmed as recurrent malignant lesions. After contrast administration, they all exhibited irregular T1 hypodense lesions of variable morphology with diffusion restriction and positive enhancement. Eight cases displayed a type III curve, while two showed a type II curve. Histopathological assessment was consistent with the MRI findings in all eight cases. The combination of the data produced by DWI-MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI resulted in 100%sensitivity, 92.5% specificity, 90.9% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 98% accuracy. Conclusion. Combination of DWI-MRI and DCE-MRI could have high diagnostic value for evaluating postoperative changes in patients with TNBC after BCS, followed by radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy. Trial Registrations. No trial to be registered.
Pharmacological Properties to Pharmacological Insight of Sesamin in Breast Cancer Treatment: A Literature-Based Review Study
The use of dietary phytochemical rather than conventional therapies to treat numerous cancers is now a well-known approach in medical science. Easily available and less toxic dietary phytochemicals present in plants should be introduced in the list of phytochemical-based treatment areas. Sesamin, a natural phytochemical, may be a promising chemopreventive agent aiming to manage breast cancer. In this study, we discussed the pharmacological properties of sesamin that determine its therapeutics opportunity to be used in breast cancer treatment and other diseases. Sesamin is available in medicinal plants, especially in Sesamum indicum, and is easily metabolized by the liver. To better understand the antibreast cancer consequence of sesamin, we postulate some putative pathways related to the antibreast cancer mechanism: (1) regulation of estrogen receptor (ER-α and ER-β) activities, (2) suppressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) overexpression, (3) growth factor receptor inhibition, and (4) some tyrosine kinase pathways. Targeting these pathways, sesamin can modulate cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, cell growth and viability, metastasis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and oncogene inactivation in various in vitro and animal models. Although the actual tumor intrinsic signaling mechanism targeted by sesamin in cancer treatment is still unknown, this review summarized that this phytoestrogen suppressed NF-κB, STAT, MAPK, and PIK/AKT signaling pathways and activated some tumor suppressor protein in numerous breast cancer models. Cotreatment with γ-tocotrienol, conventional drugs, and several drug carriers systems increased the anticancer potentiality of sesamin. Furthermore, sesamin exhibited promising pharmacokinetics properties with less toxicity in the bodies. Overall, the shreds of evidence highlight that sesamin can be a potent candidate to design drugs against breast cancer. So, like other phytochemicals, sesamin can be consumed for better therapeutic advantages due to having the ability to target a plethora of molecular pathways until clinically trialed standard drugs are not available in pharma markets.