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Signs of Central Hypersensitivity, Stress, and Anxiety following Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study
Background. With treatment for breast cancer, women treated may present significant sensory abnormalities in the upper extremity. However, there are no conclusive studies that have evaluated pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in the shoulder of postoperated women for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare PPT in the shoulder, stress, anxiety, depression symptoms, and quality of sleep among postoperated women for breast cancer (PO group) and asymptomatic women of shoulder pain (control group). Methods. 40 women participated (, PO group, age: , years; body mass index (BMI): kg/cm2; surgery time: months; , control group, years; BMI: kg/cm2). The PPT was evaluated with a digital algometer at 32 points in the shoulder region and one control point in the tibialis anterior. Stress, anxiety, and depression were evaluated with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) and the quality of sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results. Significant differences were observed over 1.5 kgf/cm2 in 33 points evaluated () with a small to high effect size (Cliff’s delta ; 0.92) and higher levels of anxiety and stress in the PO group (anxiety: median [first; third quartile], 5[3; 12.5]; stress: (7.8; 11.8)) in comparison with the control group (anxiety: 2.5[1; 4.8]; stress: (5.2; 8.3), ()). No significant differences were found between the groups in depression and sleep quality (). Conclusion. Postoperated women for breast cancer present hyperalgesia in the shoulder anterior and posterior region, low PPT in the tibialis anterior, and higher levels of stress and anxiety compared to the control group.
Detection of High- and Low-Risk HPV DNA in Archived Breast Carcinoma Tissues from Ethiopian Women
Background. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is involved in the development of cancer of the cervix, mouth and throat, anus, penis, vulva, or vagina, but it has not been much considered as a cause of breast cancer. Recently, a number of investigations have linked breast cancer to viral infections. High-risk HPV types, predominantly HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59, are established as carcinogens in humans. In this study we aimed to detect 19 high-risk and 9 low-risk HPVs from archived breast tumor tissue among Ethiopian women. Methods. In this study, 75 breast cancer patients from Tikur Anbassa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) were included. HPV detection and genotyping were done using the novel Anyplex™ II HPV28 Detection Assay at the Orebro University Hospital, Sweden. The Anyplex™ II PCR System detects 19 high-risk HPV types (16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 69, 73, and 82) and 9 low-risk HPV types (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, and 70). IHC for p16 was done using an automated system, the Dako Autostainer Link. Results. Out of the 75 valid tests, two were found to be positive (2.7%) for HPV. One of the cases was positive for the high-risk HPV16 genotype while the other was positive both for the high-risk HPV39 and the low-risk HPV6. The cell cycle protein p16 was highly expressed in the case positive for the high-risk HPV16, but it was not expressed in the case positive for HPV39. Conclusion. The prevalence of HPV is low in Ethiopian breast cancer patients, but the role played by HPV in breast carcinogenesis among Ethiopian breast cancer patients cannot be commented based on these observations.
Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Associations with Molecular Subtypes: A Case-Control Study
Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer in women and the leading cause of women’s cancer-related deaths and morbidity worldwide. In Rwanda, BC incidence is increasing with an unacceptably high mortality rate in premenopausal women. Objectives. The purpose was to identify modifiable BC risk factors and assess associations between common breast cancer risks factors and molecular subtypes in premenopausal women in Rwanda. Methods. This was a case-control study. Premenopausal women with histological confirmation of BC and frequency-matched for age controls were recruited. A preestablished questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls for sociodemographics, BC probable risk factors, and clinical and pathological characteristics. BC was classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2-type, basal-like (triple negative), and unclassified molecular subtypes by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. 340 participants were recruited into the study (170 cases vs. 170 controls). The median age was 39 years. The majority of cases presented at advanced stages of the disease (51.2% in stages III and IV) and had invasive ductal carcinoma (98.2%). 60.6% had subtypes of poor prognosis (HER2 enriched 14.7%, triple negative 12.9%, and unclassified 32.9%). Alcohol intake , obesity/overweight in adolescence or early adulthood , history of primary infertility , nulliparity , and a history of benign breast disease were associated with the occurrence of premenopausal breast cancer. There was no significant difference between risk factor stratification per molecular subtype. Conclusion. Several reproductive, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors have been identified to be associated with premenopausal BC. Among them, alcohol intake and obesity/overweight during adolescence/early adulthood can be modified. Interventions targeting alcohol consumption and obesity/overweight in adolescents and young adults may decrease the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer.
Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Methods among Female Community Pharmacists in Jordan: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objectives. Our study is aimed at exploring the knowledge and personal practice of breast cancer screening among female community pharmacists in Jordan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a nonrandom sample selection method for pharmacists in community pharmacies. Results. A total of 551 female pharmacists completed the questionnaire. The mean age of pharmacists was years (range 21–67), and most have bachelor degrees in pharmacy (89.1%). The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer signs and symptoms was out of 6 points (range 0–6). The mean score of knowledge of risk factors was out of 12 points (ranging from 2–12). The mean score for knowledge of screening guidelines was out of 4 points (range 0–4). Overall, 452 pharmacists (85.8%) had acceptable knowledge while 75 pharmacists (14.2%) had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Pharmacists surveyed were aware of the different screening methods of breast cancer. The percentage of pharmacists who has performed breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE), and mammography was 46.6%, 16.5%, and 5.4%, respectively. The most common reason for the lack of BSE and CBE performance was the absence of breast symptoms. Not being at the age recommended for mammography was the most common reason for not undergoing this screening method. Knowledge and practice of screening methods were influenced by age, years of experience, geographic region, personal history of breast cancer, and educational level among community pharmacists. Conclusions. This study revealed some gaps in the knowledge of breast cancer among female community pharmacists. The practice of the different screening methods was suboptimal, and variable reasons were indicated for the low uptake of these screening methods. Community pharmacists need to practice preventive behaviors to a satisfactory level to encourage women in the community to adopt similar behavior.
Dose-Dense Docetaxel versus Weekly Paclitaxel following Dose-Dense Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide as Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis
Background/Aims. The anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy regimens are the standard adjuvant treatment of node-positive breast cancer patients. Although it was believed that docetaxel and paclitaxel are similarly effective as adjuvant treatment in node-positive breast cancer, recent studies report that weekly paclitaxel is superior to weekly and triweekly docetaxel schedules in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has compared weekly paclitaxel with a dose-dense regimen of docetaxel. The current study is aimed at evaluating the outcome of women with node-positive breast cancer who had received weekly paclitaxel compared with those treated with dose-dense docetaxel. Methods. This study included patients from two prospective studies conducted in our institute from April 2007 to March 2009. Ninety-one women with axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer who had received four cycles of dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide were treated with either weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) for 12 doses or biweekly docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for four cycles. Results. After a median follow-up of 88 and 109 months, 11 (23.4%) and 10 (22.7%) patients had experienced disease recurrence (), while 10 (21.3%) and 5 (11.4%) patients had died in the paclitaxel and docetaxel arm, respectively (). No significant difference could be seen in 5-year DFS or OS among groups (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.19–1.81, ; HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.19–1.81, , respectively). Conclusion. In conclusion, both evaluated adjuvant chemotherapy regimens have comparable effectiveness regarding DFS and OS.
The Importance of Clinical Data for the Diagnosis of Breast Tumours in North Afghanistan
Background. This study was performed in knowledge of the increasing gap between breast disease treatment in countries with restricted resources and developed countries with increasingly sophisticated examination methods. Methods. The authors present the analysis of a breast disease register consisting of diagnostic cases from Mazar e Sharif and Herat in 2018 and 2019. The study comprises a total of 567 cases, which were presented to experts via telemedicine for final diagnosis. 62 cases (10.9%) were excluded due to inacceptable data or insufficient image quality. These data provided by daily diagnostic classification were used for the built-up of a profile for each frequent breast disease and a breast cancer register. All images and cases were seen by at least 3 independent experts. The diagnoses were made in 60% of cases by cytology of fine needle aspiration and in 40% by histological images. Results. For each entity of breast diseases (e.g., fibroadenoma), a profile of context variables was constructed allowing to assist medical decisions, as “wait and see,” elective surgery or immediate surgical intervention with R0 (complete) resection. These “profiles” could be described for fibroadenoma, mastitis, galactocele, fibrous-cystic disease, and invasive breast cancer. Conclusions. The presented preliminary data set could serve as a cost-effective basis for a North Afghan breast cancer registry, with option to extent to a national model. These preliminary data are transformed in profiles of breast diseases, which are used by the local physicians in charge of breast disease patients. Each new case can be compared by the local treating physician with the profile of all preceded cases with the same diagnosis.