Incidence of Breast Cancer in Eritrea: A Retrospective Study from 2011 to 2017Read the full article
International Journal of Breast Cancer provides a forum for scientists, clinicians, and health care professionals working in breast cancer research and management. Research includes molecular pathology, genomics, genetic predisposition etc.
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Breast Cancer Survivors’ Perceptions of Prevention versus Control of Future Cancer Recurrence
Background. The Institute of Medicine has established Survivorship Care Planning as a critical component of cancer care to ensure that cancer survivors receive the appropriate follow-up care in a timely manner and support cancer survivors in dealing with the risk of recurrence, yet little is known about how cancer survivors think about preventing or controlling future cancer recurrence. This study sought to assess breast cancer women’s perceived prevention and perceived control of future cancer recurrence. Methods. Women with a history of breast cancer (n=114) were surveyed, and data were analyzed using concurrent mixed methods. Binary logistic regression models examined predictors of perceived prevention and perceived control of cancer recurrence. Results. Most women perceived that they could control cancer recurrence (89%); few (30%) perceived that they could prevent cancer recurrence. Women reported components of the timeline (e.g., early diagnosis), identity (e.g., cancer in body), causes (e.g., hereditary), consequences (e.g., witness success), and cure/control (e.g., exercise) or lack of cure/control. Women who reported lack of control were less likely to perceive that they could control cancer recurrence. Women who reported causes were less likely to perceive that they could prevent or control cancer recurrence. Conclusions. Women’s perceptions about the prevention and control of cancer recurrence are important and different factors in the minds of women with breast cancer. Most women believed they could control cancer recurrence; however, few believed they could prevent cancer recurrence. Interventions to focus on control of cancer recurrence, focusing on evidence-based clinical and lifestyle interventions, are needed.
Knowledge and Health Seeking Behaviour of Breast Cancer Patients in Ghana
Background. Breast cancer is a major contributor to cancer-related deaths among women worldwide, despite the numerous measures employed to prevent and manage the disease. This study explored the knowledge and health seeking behaviour of breast cancer patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, from June 2014 to July 2014. Thirty-five participants were purposively selected. The responses to questions about their experiences with breast cancer were determined using indepth interviews. Transcripts were coded and analysed using NVIVO version 10.0. Results. Participants’ knowledge about signs and symptoms of breast cancer after their diagnosis was high but low for risk factors. Screening for breast cancer through self-breast examination was infrequently performed prior to their diagnosis. The patients’ first point of care was generally health facilities. Some patients reported late due to misinterpretation of signs and symptoms, cultural influences and fear of losing their breast to surgery, physician delay, health providers’ laxity, and disinterest in breast cancer. Men, for example, husbands, decide on where and when breast cancer patients go for treatment. Conclusion. There is poor knowledge of the risk factors for developing breast cancer. Patients resorted to the hospital as first options for cure but were generally delayed in doing so. There is the need to create awareness about breast cancer among the general population.
The Impact of Breast Clinic on the Mastectomy and Axillary Clearance Rates at a Tertiary Hospital in an Eastern Caribbean Nation: A Comparative Study
Background. Breast cancer is the leading form of cancer in women in Trinidad and Tobago. Traditionally the practice of mastectomy or wide local excision with or without axillary clearance was applied to most of these patients. This is often associated with significant morbidity and a poor cosmetic outcome with both negatively impacting the patients quality of life. The aim of our study was to assess the mastectomy and axillary clearance rate before and after the introduction of a specialty breast clinic in September 2012. Design and Methods. This is a retrospective comparative study of all female patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at our tertiary hospital 3 years prior to and 3 years after starting of breast clinic (between January 2010 and December 2015). Patients were identified from the surgical log books of our hospital. There are 5 surgical units at our hospital and in one of those units the lead surgeon had a special interest in surgical oncoplastic breast surgery. That unit formed the breast clinic in August 2012. Results. There were 532 women (256 before breast clinic and 276 after breast clinic era) with histologically verified breast cancer operated on between January 2010 and December 2015. The overall mastectomy rate was reduced from 62% to 51% (0.7 to 0.4) and the axillary clearance rate from 66.79% versus 37.31% (0.6 to 0.4) after the introduction of the clinic with p values of 0.007 and 0.009, respectively. Conclusions. The introduction of breast clinic has significantly reduced the mastectomy and axillary clearance rate at our teaching hospital.
Extreme Oncoplastic Surgery for Multifocal/Multicentric and Locally Advanced Breast Cancer
Introduction. Breast conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiation therapy (RT) has become the preferred alternative to mastectomy for patients with early stage breast cancer (BC). Randomized trials have confirmed equivalent locoregional control and overall survival for BCS and mastectomy. Extreme Oncoplasty (EO) extends the indications of BCS for patients who would otherwise require mastectomy, ensuring better aesthetic outcomes and oncological safety. Methods. BC patients with multifocal/multicentric (MF/MC) tumors, extensive DCIS, or large tumor >50mm underwent EO at our breast unit. Therapeutic reduction mammaplasty (TRM) with wise pattern preoperative markings and dual pedicle technique involving parenchymal rearrangement was used for oncoplastic reconstructions in majority of the cases followed by RT. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) were assessed using the validated Breast-Q questionnaire. Results. Of the 39 patients in the study, 36 had unilateral and 3 had bilateral BC. Mean age was 47.2 years. Median tumor size was 75mm. 17 (43.6%) patients received NACT; none achieved a complete clinical response. 28 (71.8%) patients were administered to adjuvant chemotherapy. 33(84.6%) patients received RT to the breast with a median dose of 50Gy in 28 fractions and a boost dose of 10Gy in 5 fractions to the tumor bed. No major complications or local recurrences were observed. Excellent Breast-Q scores were observed in patients undergoing EO after 12 months of follow-up. Conclusion. EO followed by RT results in acceptable local-regional control, low rate of complications, and high patient satisfaction. In selected patients, EO could provide a safe alternative for breast conservation surgery instead of mastectomy.
Germline Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Breast Cancer Patients with High Genetic Risk in Turkish Population
Background. The guidelines recommend considering the BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in female patients with breast carcinomas. In this retrospective study, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in high-risk breast carcinoma patients in a Turkish population was investigated. Materials and Methods. In high genetic risk breast carcinoma patients, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations were identified by applying next-generation sequencing. Results. The results showed BRCA1/2 mutations in 19% of the total patients. In those with first-degree relatives with breast carcinoma histories, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was also 19%. In the patients younger than 40 years old, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 19.5%. In the triple-negative breast carcinoma patients younger than 60 years old, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 24.2%. In the patients younger than 40 years old with triple-negative breast carcinomas, BRCA1/2 mutation positivity was found in 37.5% of the patients. Overall, in the Turkish population, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence ranges from 19% to 37% in patients with high-risk breast carcinomas. Conclusion. It is recommended to check for BRCA1/2 mutations in all high-risk breast carcinoma patients in the Turkish population.
CDK9 Expression Shows Role as a Potential Prognostic Biomarker in Breast Cancer Patients Who Fail to Achieve Pathologic Complete Response after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
Failure to achieve pathologic complete response is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). However, prognostic biomarkers for clinical outcome are unclear in this patient population. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is often dysregulated in breast cancer, and its deficiency results in genomic instability. We reviewed the records of 84 breast cancer patients from Emory University’s Winship Cancer Institute who had undergone surgical resection after NACT and had tissue available for tissue microarray analysis (TMA). Data recorded included disease presentation, treatment, pathologic response, overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence free survival (LRRFS), distant-failure free survival (DFFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and event-free survival (EFS). Immunohistochemistry was performed on patient samples to determine CDK9 expression levels after NACT. Protein expression was linked with clinical data to determine significance. In a Cox proportional hazards model, using a time-dependent covariate to evaluate the risk of death between groups beyond 3 years, high CDK9 expression was significantly associated with an increase in OS (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.07-0.98, p=0.046). However, Kaplan-Meier curves for OS, LRRFS, DFFS, RFS, and EFS did not reach statistical significance. The results of this study indicate that CDK9 may have a potential role as a prognostic biomarker in patients with breast cancer following NACT. However, further validation studies with increased sample sizes are needed to help elucidate the prognostic role for CDK9 in the management of these patients.