Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Breast Cancer
Volume 2011, Article ID 142763, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/142763
Research Article

Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

1Clinical Breast Care Project, Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, 620 Seventh Street, Windber, PA 15963, USA
2Clinical Breast Care Project, Windber Research Institute, 620 Seventh Street, Windber, PA 15963, USA
3BioReka, LLC, 211 Locknell Road, Timonium, MD 21093, USA
4Clinical Breast Care Project, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 6900 Georgia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20307, USA

Received 1 November 2010; Accepted 24 February 2011

Academic Editor: Luciane R. Cavalli

Copyright © 2011 Rachel E. Ellsworth et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Cancer Society, Breast Cancer Facts and Figures: 2009–2010, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2009.
  2. National Cancer Institute, SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1991, NIH Publ. No. 94-2789, NIH, Bethesda, Md, USA, 1994.
  3. P. Eifel, J. A. Axelson, J. Costa et al., “National institutes of health consensus development conference statement: adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, November 1–3, 2000,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 93, no. 13, pp. 979–989, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  4. E. A. Newman and L. A. Newman, “Lymphatic mapping techniques and sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer,” Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 353–364, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Fisher, C. Redmond, E. R. Fisher et al., “Ten-year results of a randomized clinical trial comparing radical mastectomy and total mastectomy with or without radiation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 312, no. 11, pp. 674–681, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian et al., “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 927–933, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. A. E. Giuliano, L. McCall, P. Beitsch et al., “Locoregional recurrence after sentinel lymph node dissection with or without axillary dissection in patients with sentinel lymph node metastases: the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 randomized trial,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 252, no. 3, pp. 426–432, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. L. Andersen, I. Hojris, M. Erlandsen, and J. Andersen, “Treatment of breast-cancer-related lymphedema with or without manual lymphatic drainage: a randomized study,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 399–405, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. H. Sakorafas, G. Peros, L. Cataliotti, and G. Vlastos, “Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer,” Surgical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 153–165, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. G. Wilke, L. M. McCall, K. E. Posther et al., “Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 491–500, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. J. Bloom and W. W. Richardson, “Histological grading and prognosis in breast cancer; a study of 1409 cases of which 359 have been followed for 15 years,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 359–377, 1957. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. W. Elston and I. O. Ellis, “Pathological prognostic factors in breast cancer. I. The value of histological grade in breast cancer: experience from a large study with long-term follow-up,” Histopathology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 403–410, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. M. Perou, T. Sørile, M. B. Eisen et al., “Molecular portraits of human breast tumours,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6797, pp. 747–752, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Sotiriou, P. Wirapati, S. Loi et al., “Gene expression profiling in breast cancer: understanding the molecular basis of histologic grade to improve prognosis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 262–272, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. J. van't Veer, H. Dai, M. J. van de Vijver et al., “Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6871, pp. 530–536, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. X. Nguyen and J. Massagué, “Genetic determinants of cancer metastasis,” Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 341–352, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. S. Michaelson, M. Silverstein, D. Sgroi et al., “The effect of tumor size and lymph node status on breast carcinoma lethality,” Cancer, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 2133–2143, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Bertucci, R. Houlgatte, A. Benziane et al., “Gene expression profiling of primary breast carcinomas using arrays of candidate genes,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 9, no. 20, pp. 2981–2991, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Huang, S. H. Cheng, H. Dressman et al., “Gene expression predictors of breast cancer outcomes,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9369, pp. 1590–1596, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. C. Abba, H. Sun, K. A. Hawkins et al., “Breast cancer molecular signatures as determined by SAGE: correlation with lymph node status,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 881–890, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. X. Lu, X. Lu, Z. C. Wang, J. D. Iglehart, X. Zhang, and A. L. Richardson, “Predicting features of breast cancer with gene expression patterns,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 191–201, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Weigelt, L. F. A. Wessels, A. J. Bosma et al., “No common denominator for breast cancer lymph node metastasis,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 924–932, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. J. van de Vijver, Y. D. He, L. J. van 't Veer et al., “A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 25, pp. 1999–2009, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Ein-Dor, O. Zuk, and E. Domany, “Thousands of samples are needed to generate a robust gene list for predicting outcome in cancer,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 15, pp. 5923–5928, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. I. J. Fidler and M. L. Kripke, “Metastasis results from preexisting variant cells within a malignant tumor,” Science, vol. 197, no. 4306, pp. 893–895, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Poste and I. J. Fidler, “The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis,” Nature, vol. 283, no. 5743, pp. 139–146, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Ramaswamy, K. N. Ross, E. S. Lander, and T. R. Golub, “A molecular signature of metastasis in primary solid tumors,” Nature Genetics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. I. J. Fidler, M. L. Kripke, S. Ramaswamy, K. N. Ross, E. S. Lander, and T. R. Golub, “Genomic analysis of primary tumors does not address the prevalence of metastatic cells in the population,” Nature Genetics, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 23, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. R. Welch, “Microarrays bring new insights into understanding of breast cancer metastasis to bone,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 61–64, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Kang, P. M. Siegel, W. Shu et al., “A multigenic program mediating breast cancer metastasis to bone,” Cancer Cell, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 537–549, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Ding, M. J. Ellis, S. Li et al., “Genome remodelling in a basal-like breast cancer metastasis and xenograft,” Nature, vol. 464, no. 7291, pp. 999–1005, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Sørlie, C. M. Perou, R. Tibshirani et al., “Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 19, pp. 10869–10874, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Kennecke, R. Yerushalmi, R. Woods et al., “Metastatic behavior of breast cancer subtypes,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 3271–3277, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Smid, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang et al., “Subtypes of breast cancer show preferential site of relapse,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 3108–3114, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. X. Yu, A. M. Sieuwerts, Y. Zhang et al., “Pathway analysis of gene signatures predicting metastasis of node-negative primary breast cancer,” BMC Cancer, vol. 7, article 182, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. C. Bidard, J. Y. Pierga, A. Vincent-Salomon, and M. F. Poupon, “A “class action” against the microenvironment: do cancer cells cooperate in metastasis?” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. Hunter, “The intersection of inheritance and metastasis: the role and implications of germline polymorphism in tumor dissemination,” Cell Cycle, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1719–1721, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. T. Pletcher, P. McClurg, S. Batalov et al., “Use of a dense single nucleotide polymorphism map for in silico mapping in the mouse,” PLoS Biology, vol. 2, no. 12, article e393, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. P. S. Crawford, A. Ziogas, D. J. Peel, J. Hess, H. Anton-Culver, and K. W. Hunter, “Germline polymorphisms in SIPA1 are associated with metastasis and other indicators of poor prognosis in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 8, no. 2, article R16, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. M. Hsieh, M. P. Look, A. M. Sieuwerts, J. A. Foekens, and K. W. Hunter, “Distinct inherited metastasis susceptibility exists for different breast cancer subtypes: a prognosis study,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 5, p. R75, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus