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International Journal of Breast Cancer
Volume 2011, Article ID 381080, 10 pages
Research Article

Role of CEACAM1, ECM, and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Orthotopic Model of Human Breast Cancer

1Irell & Manella City of Hope Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
2Department of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
3Department of Neurosciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA

Received 19 May 2010; Accepted 6 September 2010

Academic Editor: Zsuzsanna Kahaán

Copyright © 2011 Sridhar Samineni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is a morphogen in an in vitro model for lumen formation and plays a similar role in breast epithelial cells implanted in humanized mammary fat pads in NOD-SCID mice. Although extra cellular matrix alone is sufficient to stimulate lumen formation in CEACAM1 transfected MCF-7 cells grown in 3D culture, there is an additional requirement for stromal or mesenchymal cells (MSCs) for these cells to form xenografts with glandular structures in an orthotopic site. We demonstrate that optimal in vitro conditions include both Matrigel and MSCs and that the inclusion of collagen I inhibits xenograft differentiation. Additionally, there is no need to remove the nascent murine mammary gland. The previously observed difference in gland development between the long and short cytoplasmic domain isoforms of CEACAM1 is no longer observed in pregnant NOD/SCID mice suggesting that stimulation of the mammary fat pad by pregnancy critically affects xenograft differentiation.