Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Breast Cancer
Volume 2015, Article ID 145647, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/145647
Review Article

C-Reactive Protein and Breast Cancer: New Insights from Old Molecule

1Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Aurangabad 431001, India
2United CIIGMA Hospital, Aurangabad, India

Received 29 July 2015; Accepted 10 November 2015

Academic Editor: Zsuzsanna Kahán

Copyright © 2015 Shilpa Balaji Asegaonkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, M. Ervik et al., GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No.11, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2013, http://globocan.iarc.fr.
  2. I. H. Abdulkareem, “A review on aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer,” Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy, vol. 4, article 142, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “The hallmarks of cancer,” Cell, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 57–70, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. Balkwill and A. Mantovani, “Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow?” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9255, pp. 539–545, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Colotta, P. Allavena, A. Sica, C. Garlanda, and A. Mantovani, “Cancer-related inflammation, the seventh hallmark of cancer: links to genetic instability,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1073–1081, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Mantovani, P. Allavena, A. Sica, and F. Balkwill, “Cancer-related inflammation,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7203, pp. 436–444, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. H. Allin and B. G. Nordestgaard, “Elevated C-reactive protein in the diagnosis, prognosis, and cause of cancer,” Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 155–170, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C.-S. Wang and C.-F. Sun, “C-reactive protein and malignancy: clinico-pathological association and therapeutic implication,” Chang Gung Medical Journal, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 471–482, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Siemes, L. E. Visser, J.-W. W. Coebergh et al., “C-reactive protein levels, variation in the C-reactive protein gene, and cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 33, pp. 5216–5222, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Guo, S. Liu, S. Zhang et al., “C-reactive protein and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, Article ID 10508, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. Y.-Z. Guo, L. Pan, C.-J. Du, D.-Q. Ren, and X.-M. Xie, “Association between C-reactive protein and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 243–248, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Wang, N. Li, L. Cao et al., “Association between the level of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and risk of breast cancer among non-diabetic females: a prospective study in Kailuan group,” Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 944–948, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  13. G. Wang, N. Li, S. Chang et al., “A prospective follow-up study of the relationship between C-reactive protein and human cancer risk in the Chinese kailuan female cohort,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 459–465, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Hong, A. Liu, D. Cai et al., “Preoperative serum C-reactive protein levels and early breast cancer by BMI and menopausal status,” Cancer Investigation, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 279–285, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Dossus, A. Jimenez-Corona, I. Romieu et al., “C-reactive protein and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort study,” Cancer Causes & Control, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 533–539, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. M. Zhang, J. Lin, N. R. Cook et al., “C-reactive protein and risk of breast cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 890–894, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Il'yasova, L. H. Colbert, T. B. Harris et al., “Circulating levels of inflammatory markers and cancer risk in the health aging and body composition cohort,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2413–2418, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Trichopoulos, T. Psaltopoulou, P. Orfanos, A. Trichopoulou, and P. Boffetta, “Plasma C-reactive protein and risk of cancer: a prospective study from Greece,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 381–384, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. R. Cook, I.-M. Lee, J. M. Gaziano et al., “Low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of cancer. The women's health study: a randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 294, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. A. Baron, “Epidemiology of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer,” Progress in Experimental Tumor Research, vol. 37, pp. 1–24, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. H. Allin, B. G. Nordestgaard, J. Zacho, A. Tybjærg-Hansen, and S. E. Bojesen, “C-reactive protein and the risk of cancer: a mendelian randomization study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 202–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Heikkilä, S. Ebrahim, and D. A. Lawlor, “A systematic review of the association between circulating concentrations of C reactive protein and cancer,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 824–833, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Cha-Molstad, D. P. Young, I. Kushner, and D. Samols, “The interaction of C-Rel with C/EBPbeta enhances C/EBPbeta binding to the C-reactive protein gene promoter,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 2933–2942, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Moon, E.-S. Kim, M. Bae et al., “Inflammatory lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate upregulates C-reactive protein via C/EBPbb and potentiates breast cancer progression,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, supplement, p. 728.12, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  25. K. H. Allin, B. G. Nordestgaard, H. Flyger, and S. E. Bojesen, “Elevated pre-treatment levels of plasma C-reactive protein are associated with poor prognosis after breast cancer: a cohort study,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 3, article R55, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. L. Pierce, R. Ballard-Barbash, L. Bernstein et al., “Elevated biomarkers of inflammation are associated with reduced survival among breast cancer patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 21, pp. 3437–3444, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. Han, F. Mao, Y. Wu et al., “Prognostic role of C-reactive protein in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” International Journal of Biological Markers, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 209–215, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. M. Al Murri, C. Wilson, A. Lannigan et al., “Evaluation of the relationship between the systemic inflammatory response and cancer-specific survival in patients with primary operable breast cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 96, pp. 891–895, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Asegaonkar, U. Takalkar, P. Kodlikeri, A. Pagdhune, V. Bonduliya, and A. Thorat, “Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein in breast cancer patients,” International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1408–1411, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. J. Zacho, A. Tybjærg-Hansen, and B. G. Nordestgaard, “C-reactive protein and all-cause mortality—the Copenhagen City Heart Study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 1624–1632, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Vakkila and M. T. Lotze, “Inflammation and necrosis promote tumour progression and metastasis,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 4, pp. 71–78, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  32. I. Sicking, K. Edlund, E. Wesbuer et al., “Prognostic influence of pre-operative C-reactive protein in node-negative breast cancer patients,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10, Article ID e111306, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. A. Thomson, P. A. Thompson, J. Wright-Bea, E. Nardi, G. R. Frey, and A. Stopeck, “Metabolic syndrome and elevated C-reactive protein in breast cancer survivors on adjuvant hormone therapy,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2041–2047, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. L. Pierce, M. L. Neuhouser, M. H. Wener et al., “Correlates of circulating C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A concentrations in breast cancer survivors,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 155–167, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Ky, M. Putt, H. Sawaya et al., “Early increases in multiple biomarkers predict subsequent cardiotoxicity in patients with breast cancer treated with doxorubicin, taxanes, and trastuzumab,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 809–816, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. A. Onitilo, J. M. Engel, R. V. Stankowski, H. Liang, R. L. Berg, and S. A. R. Doi, “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a biomarker for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity in HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: a pilot study,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 291–298, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Gabay and I. Kushner, “Acute phase protein and other systemic responses to inflammation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 448–454, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  38. A. Villaseñor, S. W. Flatt, C. Marinac, L. Natarajan, J. P. Pierce, and R. E. Patterson, “Postdiagnosis C-reactive protein and breast cancer survivorship: findings from the WHEL Study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 189–199, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Ravishankaran and R. Karunanithi, “Clinical significance of preoperative serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein level in breast cancer patients,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 9, article 18, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. J. Fidler, “The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis: the ‘seed and soil’ hypothesis revisited,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 453–458, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus