International Journal of Biodiversity

International Journal of Biodiversity / 2015 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2015 |Article ID 394307 | 11 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/394307

Biodiversity and Indigenous Uses of Medicinal Plant in the Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandauli District, Uttar Pradesh

Academic Editor: Rafael Riosmena-Rodríguez
Received04 Sep 2014
Revised14 Feb 2015
Accepted14 Feb 2015
Published17 Mar 2015

Abstract

Conventional medicines are very important part of Indian culture. In this study the outcome of two-year study of ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary (CPWLS) and nearby area is reported. Information related to different plants which are used by local community in the treatment of many common diseases and well-being in the area was collected. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interview of about 122 participants and thorough observations and conversations with local communities. Approximately 100 plants belonging to 43 families used by the local healers were reported in this study. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lawsonia inermis, Gymnema sylvestre, Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia fistula Linn., Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze., Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Albizia lebbeck Benth., Aegle marmelos Correa., Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Solanum surattense Burm. f. The most frequent ailments reported were hepatitis, jaundice, constipation, and skin and urinary problems. The parts of the plants most frequently used were fruit, roots, and whole plants (17%) followed by leaves (16%) and bark (15%). This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the search for new drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants.

1. Introduction

Plants are always considered as a primary source of drugs in traditional and alternative system of medicine in various forms such as crude form, juice, decoction, and crude extracts. About 80% people of the world, particularly in the rural areas of developing countries, continue using traditional resources in healthcare [1]. Indian subcontinent is renowned for its cultural and plant biodiversity where large numbers of people are still living in tribes. These tribal people possess a pool of undisclosed, ethnomedicinal, and ethnopharmacological information regarding the flora of their surroundings, which may prove to be very helpful in rural community with its advantage. Natural wealth as well as the undisclosed ethnopharmacological information and the tribal cultures have been decreased remarkably at a disturbing rate due to change in life style, unintentional developmental programs, and mounting recent civilization. Negligence by the youth also influences the traditional knowledge [2, 3]. Therefore, it is necessary to discover and document this exceptional, original, and conventional information of the ethnic population, before it disappears with the knowledgeable persons. It is also for the establishment of these conventional principles at the national and international level realizing the recent global trends [4]. There is inadequate data on ethnomedicinal uses of plant in eastern Uttar Pradesh [1, 58] as compared to northern and western Uttar Pradesh [914]. Further, ethnobotanical survey centered on Purvanchal region of eastern Uttar Pradesh is enormously deficient [1518]. Some of the reported surveys are available for potential effectiveness of the traditional healthcare practices, alive in native and local communities nearby wildlife sanctuaries [1924]. Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary previously has rich forest wealth and traditional knowledge, but, after disappearance of Asiatic Lion, people from nearby utilized the forest for their livelihood as well as medicinal requirements. These people explore the medicinal prosperity of the area. Therefore, the present study was proposed to document the ethnomedicinal information of Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary (CPWLS) and nearby area.

2. Aim and Objectives

The primary aim of this research work was to assess the richness of ethnomedicinal plant species used by the local tribes in forest areas and to provide an initial picture of the ethnomedicinal plants in the CPWLS, which was not studied before from this viewpoint. So the present study was planned keeping in view the following goals:(1)assessing the diversity, distribution, and utilization patterns of medicinal plants;(2)identification and documentation of plant species used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and ailments in the study area.

3. Study Area

The Chandauli district contributes to the Indian GDP by providing a range of cereals including paddy and wheat. It is popularly known as the “Dhaan Ka Katora of Uttar Pradesh” because of tremendous productive lands of the Gangetic Plain. The Sanctuary is situated in Chandauli district, in the south eastern division of Uttar Pradesh, between Chakia and Naugarh, having rich vegetation spread over an area of 78 square kilometers and lying between the latitude 24°54′43′′N and longitude 83°10′41′′E about 70 Km from the famous city of Varanasi (Figure 1). The place has been gifted with attractive picnic spots, intense forest, and beautiful waterfalls like Rajdari and Devdari and a dam nearby area known as Chandra Prabha Dam. The Sanctuary was recognized in 1957 and spread in more than 9,600 hect. The center area of the place covers over 2,686 hect. It was famous for the Asiatic Lion during 1957–1970. It provides a natural and ideal habitat for grasslands, many caves in Vindhya region, and waterfalls for a crowd of animals and plants. There is an enormous possibility for tourism development in the Sanctuary where people can take pleasure in natural attractiveness and biodiversity. There is broad range of lovely colorful birds and creeping animals (poisonous and nonpoisonous) in the sanctuary. Rajdari and Devdari are two main waterfalls in this area which is enclosed by the forest area. The height of Rajdari is more than 65 meters which is a stepped waterfall and a major spot of attraction for the tourists. Devdari is about 500 m downwards the watercourse underneath Rajdari waterfall. The temperature in the region varies from 38°C (summer) to 14°C (winter). Rainy season lasts from mid of June to September. The forest had been the main resource for natives, but their dependence on forest resources continued to decrease gradually due to deforestation. The Sanctuary is typically dry deciduous forest and also has a huge diversity of natural shrubbery.

During the course of exploration of ethnomedicinal plants the information has been gathered from the healers inhabiting the forest areas who have sound knowledge of herbal remedies. For many decades, the tribal community has a traditionally self-managed system of folk medicine and primary healthcare mainly based on herbal remedies.

4. Methodology

The survey was spread across the seasons during 2012-2013 to get maximum information following the typical protocols for the collection of ethnobotanical facts [2527]. The study was undertaken by carrying out ethnobotanical survey with the people living in the area under study. The aims and objectives of the research were first explained to the local employees of the Sanctuary and consulted for the recognition of knowledgeable persons (informants). These informants frequently recommended other potential informants. Few traditional healers and some religious leaders such as temple priests who are involved in the practice and prescription of medicinal plants were also interviewed. We attempted to interview peoples from all age groups (Table 1), sex, and socioeconomic and ethnic community so that informants include legislature of the entire community. Total 122 informants in the age group of 17–70 years were identified from CPWLS and surrounding areas. Out of the various informants there were 8 traditional healers and 7 temple priests. The data was gathered involving a planned survey utilizing questionnaire with literate people and interview with the rest in local language by using interpreters.


Variables Frequency %

Gender
 Male 7964.75
 Female 4340.16
Age in years
 ≤20 54.10
 20–302117.21
 31–40 3125.41
 41–505242.62
 51–60 64.92
 ≥6075.74

Local name of plants, taxonomic diversity, parts of the plant used, indication, method and forms of preparation, and route of administration were recorded and documented by successive visit to villages (Table 2). Status in the humanity concerning their familiarity about herbs and traditional uses are the basic criteria for the selection for the interview of informant. The collected data from these informants represent the whole community, because they are recognized healers, villagers, elder people, teachers, social workers, and so forth.


Serial numberPlant nameLocal nameFamilyHabit Part used PreparationRoute of administrationAilments /uses

1Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet (DD001)KanghiMalvaceae[Sh][RT] [D][O]Diuretic
2Acacia catechu Willd. (DD002)KhadirCaesalpiniaceae[T][Br][D][O]Jaundice
3Adhatoda vasica Nees. (DD003)AdushaAcanthaceae[Sh][Lf], [Fl][D][O]Chronic bronchitis, asthma, and antispasmodic
4Aegle marmelos Correa. (DD004)BaelRutaceae[T][Rt Br], [Br][D], [RW] [O]Diuretic, jaundice
5Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (DD005)Mahanimba Simaroubaceae[T][Br][D][O]Febrifuge, laxative, hepatitis, bronchitis, constipation, and antitoxic in rat bite
6Albizia lebbeck Benth. (DD006)ShirishaCaesalpiniaceae[T][Br][D][O]Antitoxic and antiallergic
7Aloe vera Tourn. ex Linn. (DD007)KumariLiliaceae[Sh][Lf] [J], [Pt] [O], [LA]Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory
8Alstonia scholaris R. Br. (DD008)*SataparnaApocynaceae[T][Br][D][O]Febrifuge, skin diseases, purgative, tumours suppressor
9Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (DD009)CholaiAmaranthaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Boils, burns, snakebite, skin diseases, laxative, eruptive fevers
10Amorphophallus campanulatus Bl. ex Decne. (DD010)SuranaAraceae[H][Rh][RW], [Pw] [O]Laxative, digestive disorders, piles, skin disorders, and aphrodisiac
11Andrographis paniculata Nees. (DD011)KalmeghaAcanthaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Fevers, malaria, amoebic dysentery, dyspepsia
12Andropogon iwaraneusa Jones. (DD012)Khas Poaceae[Gr][Lf], [RT][D][O]Fever, diuretic, viral fevers
13Aristolochia indica Linn. (DD013)IsharmulAristolochiaceae[Cl][Lf] [J], [D][O], [LA]Antitoxic and jaundice
14Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. (DD014)Katahala Liliaceae[T][Lf] [Pt] [LA]Fever, boils, wounds, and skin diseases
15Asparagus racemosus Willd. (DD015)ShatavariLiliaceae[H][Rh][Pw], [D][O]Diuretic, anti-inflammatory
16Asteracantha longifolia Nees. (Hygrophila auriculata) (DD016)*Talmakhana Acanthaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Diuretic
17Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (DD017)NeemMeliaceae[T][Lf] [D][O]Viral hepatitis
18Bamboo manna (DD018)Bans Poaceae [H][Lf], [St][D][O]Hepatitis, jaundice
19Barleria prionitis Linn. (DD019)VajradantiAcanthaceae[Sh][WP][D][O]Laxative, hemorrhoids, cirrhosis of liver, varicose veins, and jaundice
20Barringtonia acutangula (Linn.) Gaertn. (DD020)HijjalaLecythidaceae[T][Fr] [D], [RW][O]Snake bite
21Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. (DD021)Petha Cucurbitaceae[Cl][Fr] [J], [RW][O]Jaundice
22Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (DD022)Gadahpurna Nyctaginaceae[Cl][RT] [D][O]Diuretic
23Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze. (DD023)Dhak Fabaceae[T][Br][D][O]Enlargement of liver in hepatitis
24Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R. Br. ex Ait. (DD024)Madar Asclepiadaceae[Sh][Lt], [Lf][D], [RW][O]Hepatitis, counterirritant, laxative, and syphilitic affection
25Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (DD025)MadarAsclepiadaceae[Sh][Lt], [Lf][D], [RW][O]Similar to C.  gigantea
26Capparis decidua Edgew. (DD026)KairCapparidaceae[Sh][Br][D][O]Purgative and hepatitis
27Capsicum frutescens  L. (DD027)Mirch Solanaceae[Sh][Fr] [Pt], [RW][O], [LA] Skin itches; the fruit is used to treat discomforts and common ailments associated with pregnancy
28Carica papaya L. (DD028)PapitaCaricaceae[T][Fr], [Lt][RW][O]Digestant, anthelmintic, laxative, tonic, nutritive, aphrodisiac, wormicidal activity, cough, and diuretic properties
29Cassia alata L. (DD029)Dadmari Fabaceae[H][Lf] [Pt] [LA]Ringworm and scabies, stomach-aches, laxative effect
30Cassia fistula Linn. (DD030)Amaltas Caesalpiniaceae[T][FrP][Pw] [O]Laxative, hepatitis
31Cassia occidentalis Linn. (DD031)KasamardaCaesalpiniaceae[Sh][SD], [Lf][Pw][O]Laxative, cough
32Cassia tora Linn. (DD032)ChakramardaCaesalpiniaceae[H][SD] [Pw][O]Digestive upsets
33Cissampelos pareira Linn. (DD033)BichhukandMenispermaceae[Cl][RT] [D][O]Hepatitis, antitoxic, correcting the digestive system
34Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. (DD034)TarkariVerbenaceae[T][Br][D][O]Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory
35Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. (DD035)VarunaCapparidaceae[T][Br][D][O]Laxative, diuretic, anti- inflammatory, and antitoxic
36Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (DD036) Safed musliHypoxidaceae[H][RT] [D][O]Jaundice, antibacterial, antifungal, and leucorrhoea
37Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. (DD037)DoobPoaceae [Gr][WP][D][O]Ascites, general anasarca, antiviral agent, and chicken pox
38Cyperus rotundus Linn. (DD038)*MothaCyperaceae[Gr][RT] [D][O]Scariosus, amoebic dysentery, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial
39Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DD039)ShishamFabaceae[T][HtW][D][O]Chronic fevers, diuretic, antibacterial, used for repair of damage of the tissues
40Desmodium gangeticum DC. (DD040)SharivanFabaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Diuretic, antitoxic, vomiting, and diarrhoea
41Desmodium triflorum DC. (DD041)Teenpatti Fabaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Laxative, diuretic, and carminative
42Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf. (DD042)*KushaPoaceae [Gr][RT] [D][O]Stopping bleeding, anti-inflammatory, antitoxic, and diuretic, and correcting the tissues
43Diospyros peregrina (Gaertn.) Gurke. (DD043)TenduEbenaceae[T][Fr], [Br][D], [RW][O]Rheumatism and ulcers
44Dolichos biflorus Linn. (DD044)KulathiFabaceae[Cl][SD] [Pw][O]Diuretic, jaundice, and gall stones
45Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk. (DD045)*BhingarajaAsteraceae [H][WP] [D][O]Anaemia, jaundice, laxative and stimulant, diuretic, emetic, and stimulant of bone marrow
46Eclipta prostrata Linn. (DD046) BhringrajAsteraceae [H][WP] [D][O]Anaemia, jaundice, laxative and stimulant, diuretic, emetic, and stimulant of bone marrow
47Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (DD047)AmalaEuphorbiaceae[T][Fr] [D], [RW][O]Metabolic disorders, laxative, rejuvenation, and hepatitis
48Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (DD048)Safeda Myrtaceae[T][Lf], [RT]Oil, [D][O], inhalationAntiseptic, upper respiratory tract infection, skin diseases, and purgative
49Ficus racemosa Linn. (DD049)Gular Moraceae[T][Br][D][O]Hepatitis
50Gmelina arborea Roxb. (DD050)GambhariVerbenaceae[T][Br][D][O]Laxative, antitoxic, diuretic, and healing
51Gymnema sylvestre Schult. (DD051)Gudmar Asclepiadaceae; [Cl][RT] [D][O]Rheumatism, cough, dyspnoea, ulcers, and eye pains
52Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. (DD052)AnantamulAsclepiadaceae[Cl][RT] [D][O]Jaundice and antitoxic
53Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (DD053)GurhalMalvaceae[Sh]Sap, [Lf][D], [Pt][O], [LA]Boils and sprains, asthma, wounds, and swelling
54Holarrhena antidysenterica (Linn.) Wall. (DD054)Indrajau Apocynaceae[T][Br][D][O]Antibacterial, amoebic dysentery, laxative, and jaundice
55Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (DD055)NeelFabaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Purgative, diuretic, antitoxic, used in epilepsy, nervous disorders, dysuria, hepatitis
56Ipomoea digitata Linn. (DD056)Vidari Convolvulaceae[H][RT] [D][O]Laxative, stimulant, anti-inflammatory
57Jasminum officinale f. affine (DD057)Chameli Oleaceae[Sh][Lf] [D], [RW][O]Antitoxic and antibacterial
58Jatropha curcas Linn. (DD058)Ratanjot Euphorbiaceae[T]Oil, [Lt]Oil [LA]Purgative, eczema, herpes, itch, sores, bleeding wounds, piles, scabies, ringworm, and decaying teeth
59Juniperus communis Linn. (DD059)*KaiphalCupressaceae[Sh][Fr] [D], [RW][O]Diuretic, antibacterial, gonorrhoea, dropsy, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial
60Lawsonia inermis Linn. (DD060)MehndiLythraceae[Sh][Lf][Br][D], [Pt][O], [LA]Jaundice, epilepsy, and asthma, reducing burning, small pox, anti-inflammatory, and gonorrhoea
61Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb. (DD061)TuraiCucurbitaceae[Cl][Fl], [Fr][D], snuff[O], nasalLaxative, diuretic, purgative jaundice
62Luffa cylindrica (Linn.) M. J. Roem. (DD062)GhiataruiCucurbitaceae[Cl][WP], [Fr][D][O]Laxative, diuretic
63Luffa echinata Roxb. (DD063)BindalCucurbitaceae[Cl][WP], [Fr][D][O]Purgative, diuretic, and anti- inflammatory
64Momordica charantia Linn. (DD064)KarelaCucurbitaceae[Cl][Fr] [RW][O]Hepatitis, laxative
65Moringa oleifera Lam. (DD065)SahijanaMoringaceae[T][Fr], [Br][D], [RW] [O]Anti-inflammatory, healing, diuretic, laxative, antipyretic, antirheumatic, tonic, diuretic, cholagogenic
66Musa paradisiaca Linn. (DD066)KelaMusaceae[Sh][Fr], [Lt][RW][O]Laxative, used to alter secretion tumours, blocked vessels
67Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. (DD067)Harsingar Oleaceae[T][Lf] [D][O]Diabetes, laxative, diuretic cholagogue, jaundice
68Oroxylum indicum Vent. (DD068)SaunapathaBignoniaceae[T][Br][D][O]Amoebic dysentery, jaundice, and antibacterial
69Physalis minima L. (DD069)Chirpoti Solanaceae[H][RT], [Lf], [Fr][D][O]Hypertension, diabetes, and malaria
70Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre. (DD070)*KaranjFabaceae[T][SD] [Pw], [RW][O]Herpes, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiviral, liver disorders extensively; it is laxative
71Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (DD071)**BijayasarFabaceae[T][HtW][D][O]Jaundice, elephantiasis, leucoderma, diarrhoea, dysentery, rectalgia, cough, and greyness of hair
72Punica granatum Linn. (DD072)*Anar Punicaceae[Sh][Fr] [D], [RW][O]Jaundice and vomiting
73Raphanus sativum Linn. (DD073)MuliBrassicaceae [H][RT] [D][O]Jaundice, intestinal disorders
74Ricinus communis Linn. (DD074)Rendi Euphorbiaceae [H][SD], [Rt] [D][O]Jaundice, viral hepatitis
75Rosa centifolia Linn. (DD075)Gulab Rosaceae[Sh]Buds[D][O]Antitoxic, liver disorder, hyperacidity, laxative, tonic, antitoxic, correcting the digestive system
76Saccharum spontaneum Linn. (DD076)*KashaPoaceae [Gr][RT] [D][O]Diuretic, bleeding disorders
77Sida acuta Burm. f. (DD077)Bariara Malvaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Diuretic, jaundice, and tonic
78Sida cordifolia Linn. (DD078)BalaMalvaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Diuretic, jaundice, and tonic
79Sida rhombifolia Linn. (DD079)MahabalaMalvaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Diuretic, jaundice, and tonic
80Solanum nigrum Linn. (DD080)Makoi Solanaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Used in liver disorders and hydrophobia
81Solanum surattense Burm. f. (DD081)Choti BhatkattaiyaSolanaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Diuretic, febrifuge, anti-inflammatory
82Solanum torvum Sw. (DD082)Choti BhatkattaiyaSolanaceae[H][WP], [RT] [D][O]Diuretic, digestive liver, and spleen enlargement
83Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (DD083)*Gorakhmundi Asteraceae [H][WP] [D][O]Laxative, diuretic
84Tamarindus indica Linn. (DD084)Email Caesalpiniaceae[T][Lf] [D], [J][O]Jaundice, anti-inflammatory
85Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. (DD085)SharpunkhaFabaceae[H][WP] [D][O]Viral hepatitis
86Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) W. and A. (DD086)ArjunaCombretaceae[T][Fr], [Br] [D], [RW][O]Diuretic, jaundice
87Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (DD087)Baheda Combretaceae[T][Fr] [D], [Pw][O]Hepatitis
88Terminalia chebula Retz. (DD088)Harre Combretaceae[T][Fr] [D], [Pw][O]Hepatitis
89Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook.f. and Thoms. (DD089)GiloyMenispermaceae[Cl][St] [D][O]Hepatitis, anticancerous
90Tribulus terrestris Linn. (DD090)GokhruZygophyllaceae [H][RT] [D][O]Diuretic and anti-inflammatory
91Trichosanthes anguina Linn. (DD091)Purwul Cucurbitaceae[Cl][RT][D][O]Hepatitis
92Trichosanthes cordata Roxb. (DD092)IlaruCucurbitaceae[Cl][RT][D][O]Hepatitis and abdominal disorders
93Trichosanthes cucumerina L. (DD093)Jangali  ParvalaCucurbitaceae[Cl][RT][D][O]Antiviral, alopecia, antipyretic, and liver tonic
94Uraria picta Desv. (DD094)*ShankarajaFabaceae[H][RT][D][O]Enhances healing, cough, cold, fevers, laxative, and diuretic
95Vetiveria zizanioides(Linn.) Nash. (DD095)Khus KhusPoaceae[Gr][Lf] Oil [O]Perfumery, anthelmintic agent, and analgesic
96Vitis quadrangularis (DD096)HathjodVitaceae[Cl][WP] [J][O]Wound healing
97Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. (DD097)*DhatakiLythraceae[Sh][Fl], [Br][D][O]Antitoxic
98Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) W. and A. (DD098)JharberRhamnaceae[T][Fr] [RW][O]Laxative and skin disorders
99Ziziphus sativa (DD099)BeriRhamnaceae[T][Fr] [RW][O]Laxative and antipyretic
100Zizyphus jujuba Lamk. (DD100)BeriRhamnaceae[T][Fr] [RW][O]Diarrhea, fever, and blood purifier

[Cl]: climber; [Gr]: grass; [H]: herb; [Sh]: shrub; [T]: tree; [Br]: bark; [Fl]: flower; [Fr]: fruit; [Lf]: leaf; [Rh]: rhizome; [RT]: root; [SD]: seed; [WP]: whole plant; [Lt]: latex; [FrP]: fruit Pulp; [Rt Br]: root bark; [HtW]: heart wood; [D]: decoction; [RW]: raw; [J]: juice; [Pt]: paste; [Pw]: powder; [LA]: local application; [O]: oral route. (The images of important plants were provided as Supplementary Material available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/394307.)
*Least concern plant.
**Vulnerable plant.

5. Identification of Plants

Prior to survey, a questionnaire was designed and pretested with five informants. Processing of voucher specimens for herbarium preparation was done following standard procedures [28]. The photographs of the plants were taken at their locality. Identification was carried out with the help of available floras [2931] and by the professional experts. Plant names were checked according to the International Plant Name Index [32].

6. Results and Discussion

A discussion of human being existence on this planet would not be complete without a look at the role of plants, because plants have been an integral part of human culture since the start of civilization. Ethnobotany is the learning of different methods by which communities of a particular province utilize native plants for their daily routine works, diet, outfits, medication, and other activities [33]. For the protection and consumption of natural wealth its documentation is required [34]. Several ethnobotanical studies were carried out to take record of the species used by the residents contiguous in the different area for health care. It is believed that there are still undisclosed species of plants in the rainforests and these species must be identified and explored for their undiscovered potentials and biological activities. Traditional medicine is practical application of the local therapeutically important plants as well as minerals. With every specialist that dies without an apprentice, the great medical knowledge base of their culture dies with them. Documentation of this undisclosed and traditional information is very much helpful in understanding the biodiversity [35], making of policies for conservation of medicinal plants [36], and also the development of researches.

The documented medicinal plants and all relevant data of the present study are summarized in Table 2. Altogether 100 medicinal plants belonging to 43 families and 82 genera were documented from the study area (Table 2). Fabaceae (11%), Cucurbitaceae (8%), Caesalpiniaceae and Poaceae (6%), and Malvaceae and Solanaceae (5%) were the dominant families (Figure 2). Among the genera, Cassia (6 spp.), Ziziphus, Trichosanthes, Terminalia, Solanum, Sida, and Luffa (3 spp. each) and Calotropis, Desmodium, and Eclipta (2 spp. each) were dominant genera. Medicinal value of plants of Vindhya region belonging to Fabaceae family was previously reported by Chaudhary [37].

Among the 100 recognized medicinal plants, 33% are trees. Other species used belong to herbs (28%), followed by shrubs (17%), vine/climber (16%), and grass (6%) (Figure 3). Some of the plants are also available in residential area, estate, wayside, riversides, and the tropical forest. Availability of trees and herbs is common in the forest. Therefore, it is easy for the local healers to use these plants [38].

The common sicknesses for the people living in tribes in the study area are bronchitis, constipation diarrhea, dysentery, gastric troubles, cuts, wounds, urinary problems, jaundice, and so forth. Amongst the parts used, fruit, roots, and whole plants (17%) followed by leaves (16%) and bark (15%) were the major parts (Figure 4). Exact doses and duration of treatment are considered as intellectual property of informants, so as per their request this information is not included in the present paper.

The majority of informant reported that decoction (64%) is the first choice for administration as it can be given with sugar. Another common method of preparation was raw (17%) followed by powder (7%), paste (5%), juice (4%), and oil (1%) (Figure 5). The decoction was obtained by boiling the plant material with water and reduced to one-fourth amount. Most of the drugs are given by oral route (91%). Direct application of paste (with oil) or medicated oil (7%) (Figure 6) is generally done for skin diseases and wounds. Most of the medicines were taken orally which is in conformity with some other studies conducted somewhere else [1, 6, 39].

There are about 13 species which were found to be under red list but out of thirteen only one plant is under vulnerable category and the rest are of the least concern [40].

7. Conclusion

Herbs are always considered as a very important source of medicine especially for the population of the rural areas and tribes because of the high cost and difficult accessibility to modern medicine. This study was conducted in Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary of Chandauli district, in the south eastern division of Uttar Pradesh, where inadequate ethnobotanical surveys on medicinal plants were conducted. Our findings demonstrated that the area is rich in biodiversity and ethnobotanical tradition. About 100 plants belonging to 43 families are used by the local communities including the tribal and local healers. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lawsonia inermis, Gymnema sylvestre, Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia fistula Linn., Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze., Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Albizia lebbeck Benth., Aegle marmelos Correa., Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Solanum surattense Burm. f. The most frequent ailments reported were hepatitis, jaundice, constipation, and skin and urinary problems. The parts of the plants most frequently used were fruit, roots, and whole plants (17%) followed by leaves (16%) and bark (15%).

Traditional knowledge of the area is greatly affected due to modernization and other factors and there is an urgent need to protect the cultural heritage and traditional knowledge of the natives by justifying the therapeutic potential and biological activities of the plants with reported scientific methods. Also there is a need for special attention to the potential plants of the area which are on the verge of extinction by excessive deforestation and development.

Conflict of Interests

The authors have no conflict of interests to declare.

Acknowledgments

The authors sincerely would like to acknowledge the people living in Jamsoti and Matihani villages, for their contribution to this study, hospitality, and kindness. They wish to express their sincere thanks to Mr. S. N. Upadhayay (Forest Officer, Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary) for providing valuable information. They wish to express their heartiest gratitude to Mr. Dulare for his translation assistance. Also they would like to thank Mr. Dulare and Mr. D. D. Singh for their kind help to reach the remote areas.

Supplementary Materials

Conventional medicines are very important part of Indian culture and establishment of these principles realizing the recent global trends. In this study the outcome of two years study of ethno medicinal uses of plants in is reported. Information related to different plants which are used by local community in the treatment of many common diseases and wellbeing in the Chandra Prabha Wild Life Sanctuary (CPWLS) and nearby area was collected. The Sanctuary is situated in Chandauli district, in the south eastern division of U.P., between Chakia and Naugarh having rich vegetation spread over in area of 78 square kilometers. Approximately 100 plants belonging to 43 families used by the local healers were reported using structured interview of about 122 participants in this study. Out of the 100 plants images of 43 plants were provided as supplementary material.

  1. Supplementary Material

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Copyright © 2015 Maurya Santosh Kumar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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