Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Volume 2007, Article ID 29817, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/29817
Research Article

Synthesis and Bioconjugation of Gold Nanoparticles as Potential Molecular Probes for Light-Based Imaging Techniques

1Biophysical Engineering Group, Institute for Biomedical Technology (BMTI), Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE, The Netherlands
2Molecular Cell Biology Group, Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials, Institute for Biomedical Technology (BMTI), Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE, The Netherlands

Received 15 January 2007; Accepted 14 June 2007

Academic Editor: Wenxiang Cong

Copyright © 2007 Raja Gopal Rayavarapu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. A. Conchello and J. W. Lichtman, “Optical sectioning microscopy,” Nature Methods, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 920–931, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nature Methods, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 932–940, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1361–1367, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller et al., “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 57–75, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 77, no. 4, Article ID 041101, 22 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, vol. 47, pp. 555–606, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning et al., “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumours using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia, vol. 2, no. 1-2, pp. 26–40, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. K. Licha, “Contrast agents for optical imaging,” in Contrast Agents II: Optical, Ultrasound, X-Ray and Radiopharmaceutical Imaging, vol. 222 of Topics in Current Chemistry, pp. 1–29, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2002, chapter 2.1. View at Google Scholar
  9. X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with indocyanine green,” Medical Physics, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1039–1047, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. W. H. Lin, N. A. Lewinski, J. L. West, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, “Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 10, no. 6, Article ID 064035, 10 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. J. Perez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, “Gold Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications,” Coordination Chemistry Reviews, vol. 249, pp. 1870–1901, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  12. K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron et al., “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 1999–2004, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  13. D. A. Stuart, A. J. Haes, C. R. Yonzon, E. M. Hicks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biological applications of localised surface plasmonic phenomenae,” IEE Proceedings Nanobiotechnology, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 13–32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. A. Gole and C. J. Murphy, “Seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods: role of the size and nature of the seed,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 16, no. 19, pp. 3633–3640, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole et al., “Anisotropic metal nanoparticles: synthesis, assembly, and optical applications,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 29, pp. 13857–13870, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Seed-mediated growth approach for shape-controlled synthesis of spheroidal and rod-like gold nanoparticles using a surfactant template,” Advanced Materials, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 1389–1393, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1957–1962, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. T. K. Sau and C. J. Murphy, “Seeded high yield synthesis of short au nanorods in aqueous solution,” Langmuir, vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 6414–6420, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. C. J. Orendorff and C. J. Murphy, “Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 3990–3994, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. D. J. Slamon, G. M. Clark, S. G. Wong, W. J. Levin, A. Ullrich, and W. L. McGuire, “Human breast cancer: correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the HER-2/neu oncogene,” Science, vol. 235, no. 4785, pp. 177–182, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. D. A. Handley, “Methods for synthesis of colloidal gold,” in Colloidal Gold: Principles, Methods, and Applications, pp. 13–32, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  22. B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Evidence for bilayer assembly of cationic surfactants on the surface of gold nanorods,” Langmuir, vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 6368–6374, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Liu and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Mechanism of silver(I)-assisted growth of gold nanorods and bipyramids,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 47, pp. 22192–22200, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. G. T. Hermanson, “Preparation of colloidal-gold-labeled proteins,” in Bioconjugate Techniques, pp. 593–605, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  25. X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 2115–2120, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov et al., “Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 341–349, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Eghtedari, M. Motamedi, V. L. Popov, N. A. Kotov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of gold nanoparticles targeted to breast cancer cells,” in Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing, vol. 5320 of Proceedings of the SPIE, pp. 21–28, San Jose, Calif, USA, January 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, “Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6801, pp. 249–257, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1172–1181, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 2543–2557, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta et al., “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: detection and characterization of breast tumors in vivo,” Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 483–496, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  32. B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT.6.1,” http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262.
  33. B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1491–1499, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  34. I. G. Calasso, W. Craig, and G. J. Diebold, “Photoacoustic point source,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 86, no. 16, pp. 3550–3553, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar