International Journal of Biomedical Imaging

International Journal of Biomedical Imaging / 2007 / Article
Special Issue

Multimodal Imaging and Hybrid Scanners

View this Special Issue

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2007 |Article ID 61523 | 10 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/61523

ESTERR-PRO: A Setup Verification Software System Using Electronic Portal Imaging

Academic Editor: Haim Azhari
Received26 Jan 2006
Revised05 Jul 2006
Accepted18 Jul 2006
Published22 Nov 2006

Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate the performance of a new software-based registration system for patient setup verification, during radiotherapy, using electronic portal images. The estimation of setup errors, using the proposed system, can be accomplished by means of two alternate registration methods. (a) The portal image of the current fraction of the treatment is registered directly with the reference image (digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) or simulator image) using a modified manual technique. (b) The portal image of the current fraction of the treatment is registered with the portal image of the first fraction of the treatment (reference portal image) by applying a nearly automated technique based on self-organizing maps, whereas the reference portal has already been registered with a DRR or a simulator image. The proposed system was tested on phantom data and on data from six patients. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the setup estimates was 0.8±0.3 (mean value ± standard deviation) for the phantom data and 0.3±0.3 for the patient data, respectively, by applying the two methodologies. Furthermore, statistical analysis by means of the Wilcoxon nonparametric signed test showed that the results that were obtained by the two methods did not differ significantly (P value >0.05).

References

  1. M. G. Herman, “Clinical use of electronic portal imaging,” Seminars in Radiation Oncology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 157–167, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. C. W. Hurkmans, P. Remeijer, J. V. Lebesque, and B. J. Mijnheer, “Set-up verification using portal imaging; review of current clinical practice,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 105–120, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. J. Hanley, G. S. Mageras, J. Sun, and G. J. Kutcher, “The effects of out-of-plane rotations on two dimensional portal image registration in conformal radiotherapy of the prostate,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1331–1343, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. D. S. Fritsch, E. L. Chaney, A. Boxwala et al., “Core-based portal image registration for automatic radiotherapy treatment verification,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1287–1300, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. L. M. Sirois, D. H. Hristov, and B. G. Fallone, “Three-dimensional anatomy setup verification by correlation of orthogonal portal images and digitally reconstructed radiographs,” Medical Physics, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 2422–2428, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. H. Lemnitzer, U. Wolf, G. Hildebrandt, and F. Kamprad, “Verification of electron field positioning,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 61–64, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. L. Dong and A. L. Boyer, “An image correlation procedure for digitally reconstructed radiographs and electronic portal images,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1053–1060, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. J.-Z. Wang, L. E. Reinstein, J. Hanley, and A. G. Meek, “Investigation of a phase-only correlation technique for anatomical alignment of portal images in radiation therapy,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1045–1058, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. R. Bansal, L. H. Staib, Z. Chen et al., “A novel approach for the registration of 2D portal and 3D CT images for treatment setup verification in radiotherapy,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (MICCAI '98), pp. 1075–1086, Cambridge, Mass, USA, October 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  10. S. Clippe, D. Sarrut, C. Malet, S. Miguet, C. Ginestet, and C. Carrie, “Patient setup error measurement using 3D intensity-based image registration techniques,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 259–265, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. A. Khamene, P. Bloch, W. Wein, M. Svatos, and F. Sauer, “Automatic registration of portal images and volumetric CT for patient positioning in radiation therapy,” Medical Image Analysis, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 96–112, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. A. E. Lujan, J. M. Balter, and R. K. Ten Haken, “Determination of rotations in three dimensions using two-dimensional portal image registration,” Medical Physics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 703–708, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. P. Remeijer, E. Geerlof, L. Ploeger, K. Gilhuijs, M. Van Herk, and J. V. Lebesque, “3-D portal image analysis in clinical practice: an evaluation of 2-D and 3-D analysis techniques as applied to 30 prostate cancer patients,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1281–1290, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, K. K. Delibasis et al., “Registration of electronic portal images for patient set-up verification,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 49, no. 14, pp. 3279–3289, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  15. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, USA, 2nd edition, 2002.
  16. S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin et al., “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 355–368, 1987. View at: Google Scholar
  17. J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 679–698, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
  18. L. J. van Vliet, I. T. Young, and P. W. Verbeek, “Recursive Gaussian derivative filters,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR '98), vol. 1, pp. 509–514, Brisbane, Australia, August 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  19. G. Borgefors, “Distance transformations in arbitrary dimensions,” Computer Vision, Graphics, & Image Processing, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 321–345, 1984. View at: Google Scholar
  20. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, “Minimization or maximization of functions,” in Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, pp. 412–420, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2nd edition, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
  21. G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1557–1563, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. T. Kohonen, Self-Organizing Maps, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2000.
  23. L. Ingber and B. Rosen, “Genetic algorithms and very fast simulated reannealing: a comparison,” Mathematical Computer Modelling, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 87–100, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  24. S. Siegel and N. J. Castellan, Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Science, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1988.
  25. L. Dong and A. L. Boyer, “An image correlation procedure for digitally reconstructed radiographs and electronic portal images,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1053–1060, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. D. S. Fritsch, S. Raghavan, A. Boxwala et al., “Benchmark test cases for evaluation of computer-based methods for detection of setup errors: realistic digitally reconstructed electronic portal images with known setup errors,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 199–204, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. S. Clippe, D. Sarrut, C. Malet, S. Miguet, C. Ginestet, and C. Carrie, “Patient setup error measurement using 3D intensity-based image registration techniques,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 259–265, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2007 Pantelis A. Asvestas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

0 Views | 0 Downloads | 0 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19.