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International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Volume 2010, Article ID 471408, 6 pages
Research Article

Timing of Imaging after D-Luciferin Injection Affects the Longitudinal Assessment of Tumor Growth Using In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

1Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
2Division of Molecular Therapy, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
3Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

Received 21 March 2010; Accepted 30 May 2010

Academic Editor: Vasilis Ntziachristos

Copyright © 2010 Yusuke Inoue et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The peak signal or the signal at a predetermined, fixed time point after D-luciferin injection may be used for the quantitative analysis of in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We repeatedly performed sequential bioluminescence imaging after subcutaneous injection of D-luciferin in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors. The peak time in each measurement became shorter early after cell inoculation, presumably due to gradual establishment of intratumoral vasculature, and reached a plateau of about 10 min on day 10. Although the correlation between the signal at a fixed time point and the peak signal was high, the signal at 5 or 10 min normalized for the peak signal was lower for earlier days, which caused overestimation of tumor growth. The time course of the signals after D-luciferin injection may vary with time after cell inoculation, and this variation should be considered when determining the imaging protocol for quantitative bioluminescence tumor monitoring.