Table 1: Selected molecular imaging probes for breast cancer.

Receptor/biomarkerImaging probeImaging modalityIn clinic/clinical trialReference

Glucose metabolism 18F-FDGPET[916]

DNA synthesis 18F-FLTPET[1722]

ER 18F-FES and its analogsPET[2325]
Z-[123I]MIVEGamma imaging[26, 27]
99mTc(I)-Estradiol-pyridin-2-yl hydrazine derivativesSPECT[28]
99mTc-Glutamate peptide estradiol (GAP-EDL)SPECT[29]
18F-FluorotamoxifenPET[30, 31]
18F-Labeled cyclofenil analoguesPET[32, 33]
99mTc-DTPA-TORSPECT[34]
11C-Labeled tetrahydroisoquinoline derivativesPET[35]
EPTA-Gd/TPTA-GdMRI[4]

PR[18F]FMNPPET[36]
[18F]FENPPET[37]
[18F]FPTPPET[38, 39]

HER2 89Zr-Labeled trastuzumabPET[40]
111In-Labeled trastuzumabSPECT[41]
111In-Labeled pertuzumabSPECT[42]
99mTc-Labeled 2Rs15dSPECT[43]
Herceptin-nanoparticlesMRI[44]
PAION-AbMRI[45]
111In-ICG-panitumumab/111In-ICG-trastuzumabSPECT/optical imaging[46]
68Ga-ABY-002/111In-ABY-002SPECT[47]
99mTc-ZHER2:2395-CysSPECT[48]
Streptavidin-functionalized SPIO and biotinylated HER2-specific affibodyMRI[49]
Affibody-based fluorescence agentOptical imaging[50, 51]

HSP90 therapy response 111In-, 64Cu-, and 68Ga-labeled DOTA-conjugated Herceptin fragmentPET[52]
89Zr-labeled trastuzumabPET[53]
(18F-FBEM)-ZHER2:342PET[54]
Anti-Her2 Affibody-AlexaFluor680Optical imaging[55]

EGFR[11C]PD153035PET[56]
99mTc-Hydrazinonicotinamide EGF-PEG-QdotConfocal microscopy[57]
EGF-Cy5.5Optical imaging[58]
Anti-EGFR antibody conjugated FNsOptical imaging[59]
Alex680-ZEGFR:1907 and Cy5.5-ZEGFR:1907Optical imaging[60]

IGF-1R 89Zr or 111In labeled R1507SPECT or PET[61, 62]
AVE-1642-Conjugated Alexa 680Optical imaging[63]
99mTc-Peptide-PNA-peptideSPECT[6466]
Metal-chelator-PNA-peptidesScintigraphy, PET, or MRI[67, 68]

64Cu-DOTA-VEGF(DEE)PET[69]
VEGFRAnti-VEGFR2 Monoclonal antibody-conjugated UCAUltrasonography[70]
99mTc-labeled single-chain VEGFSPECT[71]

Integrin 64Cu-DOTA-RGD, [18F]FB-RGD, and 125I-RGDPET[72]
64Cu-DOTA-dimer RGDPET[73]
18F-FBEM-SRGD (RGD monomer) and 18F-FBEM-SRGD2 (RGD dimer)PET[74]
18F-galacto-RGDPET[75]
68Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]PET[76]
RGD peptide-labeled FSiNPsOptical imaging[77]
99mTc(I) Tricarbonyl complex of cyclic RGD peptideSPECT[78]
99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD tetramerSPECT[79]
99mTc-NC100692Scintigraphy[80, 81]
HPMA copolymer-Gd-RGDfKMRI[82]
MBs-RGDUltrasonography[5]

MRI: dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging; PET: positron emission tomography; SPECT: single-photon emission computed tomography; FDG: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose; FLT: 18F-fluorothymidine; ER: estrogen receptor; FES: 16α- 18F -fluoro-17β-estradiol; Z-[123I]MIVE, 123Iodine labelled cis-11β-methoxy-17α-iodovinyloestradiol; EPTA-Gd/TPTA-Gd: pyridine-tetra-acetate-Gd(III) chelate (PTA-Gd) conjugated to 17β-estradiol/tamoxifen; PR: progesterone receptor; [18F]FMNP: 21-[18F]fluoro-16-α-methyl-19-norprogesterone; [18F]FENP: 21-[18F]-Fluoro-16α-ethyl-norprogesterone; [18F]-FPTP: 4-[18F]fluoropropyl-Tanaproget; HER2: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; PAION-Ab: poly(amino acid) coated iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with HER2 antibody; SPIO: superparamagnetic iron oxide; HSP90: heat shock protein 90; 18F-FBEM: N-[2-(4-[18F]fluorobenzamido)ethyl]maleimide; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; IGF-1R: type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor; VEGFR: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; UCA: ultrasound contrast agents; RGD: arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide; FSiNPs: fluorescent silica nanoparticles; HPMA: N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide; MBs: microbubbles.