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International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Volume 2016, Article ID 7462014, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7462014
Review Article

Insight into the Molecular Imaging of Alzheimer’s Disease

1Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida 201303, India
2Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Room No. 312, J3 Block, III Floor, Noida 201303, India

Received 30 September 2015; Accepted 16 December 2015

Academic Editor: Jyh-Cheng Chen

Copyright © 2016 Abishek Arora and Neeta Bhagat. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease is a complex neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Earlier it was diagnosed only via clinical assessments and confirmed by postmortem brain histopathology. The development of validated biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease has given impetus to improve diagnostics and accelerate the development of new therapies. Functional imaging like positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides a means of detecting and characterising the regional changes in brain blood flow, metabolism, and receptor binding sites that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Multimodal neuroimaging techniques have indicated changes in brain structure and metabolic activity, and an array of neurochemical variations that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Radiotracer-based PET and SPECT potentially provide sensitive, accurate methods for the early detection of disease. This paper presents a review of neuroimaging modalities like PET, SPECT, and selected imaging biomarkers/tracers used for the early diagnosis of AD. Neuroimaging with such biomarkers and tracers could achieve a much higher diagnostic accuracy for AD and related disorders in the future.