International Journal of Biomedical Imaging The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Monte Carlo Simulation for Polychromatic X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography with Sheet-Beam Geometry Mon, 08 May 2017 09:44:10 +0000 X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) based on sheet beam can save a huge amount of time to obtain a whole set of projections using synchrotron. However, it is clearly unpractical for most biomedical research laboratories. In this paper, polychromatic X-ray fluorescence computed tomography with sheet-beam geometry is tested by Monte Carlo simulation. First, two phantoms ( and ) filled with PMMA are used to simulate imaging process through GEANT 4. Phantom contains several GNP-loaded regions with the same size (10 mm) in height and diameter but different Au weight concentration ranging from 0.3% to 1.8%. Phantom contains twelve GNP-loaded regions with the same Au weight concentration (1.6%) but different diameter ranging from 1 mm to 9 mm. Second, discretized presentation of imaging model is established to reconstruct more accurate XFCT images. Third, XFCT images of phantoms and are reconstructed by filter back-projection (FBP) and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) with and without correction, respectively. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is calculated to evaluate all the reconstructed images. Our results show that it is feasible for sheet-beam XFCT system based on polychromatic X-ray source and the discretized imaging model can be used to reconstruct more accurate images. Shanghai Jiang, Peng He, Luzhen Deng, Mianyi Chen, and Biao Wei Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Fast Compressed Sensing MRI Based on Complex Double-Density Dual-Tree Discrete Wavelet Transform Sun, 09 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Compressed sensing (CS) has been applied to accelerate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for many years. Due to the lack of translation invariance of the wavelet basis, undersampled MRI reconstruction based on discrete wavelet transform may result in serious artifacts. In this paper, we propose a CS-based reconstruction scheme, which combines complex double-density dual-tree discrete wavelet transform (CDDDT-DWT) with fast iterative shrinkage/soft thresholding algorithm (FISTA) to efficiently reduce such visual artifacts. The CDDDT-DWT has the characteristics of shift invariance, high degree, and a good directional selectivity. In addition, FISTA has an excellent convergence rate, and the design of FISTA is simple. Compared with conventional CS-based reconstruction methods, the experimental results demonstrate that this novel approach achieves higher peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), larger signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), better structural similarity index (SSIM), and lower relative error. Shanshan Chen, Bensheng Qiu, Feng Zhao, Chao Li, and Hongwei Du Copyright © 2017 Shanshan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Phase Segmentation Methods for an Automatic Surgical Workflow Analysis Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In this paper, we present robust methods for automatically segmenting phases in a specified surgical workflow by using latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and hidden Markov model (HMM) approaches. More specifically, our goal is to output an appropriate phase label for each given time point of a surgical workflow in an operating room. The fundamental idea behind our work lies in constructing an HMM based on observed values obtained via an LDA topic model covering optical flow motion features of general working contexts, including medical staff, equipment, and materials. We have an awareness of such working contexts by using multiple synchronized cameras to capture the surgical workflow. Further, we validate the robustness of our methods by conducting experiments involving up to 12 phases of surgical workflows with the average length of each surgical workflow being 12.8 minutes. The maximum average accuracy achieved after applying leave-one-out cross-validation was 84.4%, which we found to be a very promising result. Dinh Tuan Tran, Ryuhei Sakurai, Hirotake Yamazoe, and Joo-Ho Lee Copyright © 2017 Dinh Tuan Tran et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Histogram Region Merging Based Multithreshold Segmentation Algorithm for MR Brain Images Thu, 16 Mar 2017 07:11:37 +0000 Multithreshold segmentation algorithm is time-consuming, and the time complexity will increase exponentially with the increase of thresholds. In order to reduce the time complexity, a novel multithreshold segmentation algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, all gray levels are used as thresholds, so the histogram of the original image is divided into 256 small regions, and each region corresponds to one gray level. Then, two adjacent regions are merged in each iteration by a new designed scheme, and a threshold is removed each time. To improve the accuracy of the merger operation, variance and probability are used as energy. No matter how many the thresholds are, the time complexity of the algorithm is stable at . Finally, the experiment is conducted on many MR brain images to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Experiment results show that our method can reduce the running time effectively and obtain segmentation results with high accuracy. Siyan Liu, Xuanjing Shen, Yuncong Feng, and Haipeng Chen Copyright © 2017 Siyan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Image Analysis for MRI Based Brain Tumor Detection and Feature Extraction Using Biologically Inspired BWT and SVM Mon, 06 Mar 2017 06:35:32 +0000 The segmentation, detection, and extraction of infected tumor area from magnetic resonance (MR) images are a primary concern but a tedious and time taking task performed by radiologists or clinical experts, and their accuracy depends on their experience only. So, the use of computer aided technology becomes very necessary to overcome these limitations. In this study, to improve the performance and reduce the complexity involves in the medical image segmentation process, we have investigated Berkeley wavelet transformation (BWT) based brain tumor segmentation. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy and quality rate of the support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, relevant features are extracted from each segmented tissue. The experimental results of proposed technique have been evaluated and validated for performance and quality analysis on magnetic resonance brain images, based on accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and dice similarity index coefficient. The experimental results achieved 96.51% accuracy, 94.2% specificity, and 97.72% sensitivity, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed technique for identifying normal and abnormal tissues from brain MR images. The experimental results also obtained an average of 0.82 dice similarity index coefficient, which indicates better overlap between the automated (machines) extracted tumor region with manually extracted tumor region by radiologists. The simulation results prove the significance in terms of quality parameters and accuracy in comparison to state-of-the-art techniques. Nilesh Bhaskarrao Bahadure, Arun Kumar Ray, and Har Pal Thethi Copyright © 2017 Nilesh Bhaskarrao Bahadure et al. All rights reserved. Medical Image Fusion Based on Feature Extraction and Sparse Representation Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 As a novel multiscale geometric analysis tool, sparse representation has shown many advantages over the conventional image representation methods. However, the standard sparse representation does not take intrinsic structure and its time complexity into consideration. In this paper, a new fusion mechanism for multimodal medical images based on sparse representation and decision map is proposed to deal with these problems simultaneously. Three decision maps are designed including structure information map (SM) and energy information map (EM) as well as structure and energy map (SEM) to make the results reserve more energy and edge information. SM contains the local structure feature captured by the Laplacian of a Gaussian (LOG) and EM contains the energy and energy distribution feature detected by the mean square deviation. The decision map is added to the normal sparse representation based method to improve the speed of the algorithm. Proposed approach also improves the quality of the fused results by enhancing the contrast and reserving more structure and energy information from the source images. The experiment results of 36 groups of CT/MR, MR-T1/MR-T2, and CT/PET images demonstrate that the method based on SR and SEM outperforms five state-of-the-art methods. Yin Fei, Gao Wei, and Song Zongxi Copyright © 2017 Yin Fei et al. All rights reserved. Future of the Renal Biopsy: Time to Change the Conventional Modality Using Nanotechnology Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 At the present time, imaging guided renal biopsy is used to provide diagnoses in most types of primary and secondary renal diseases. It has been claimed that renal biopsy can provide a link between diagnosis of renal disease and its pathological conditions. However, sometimes there is a considerable mismatch between patient renal outcome and pathological findings in renal biopsy. This is the time to address some new diagnostic methods to resolve the insufficiency of conventional percutaneous guided renal biopsy. Nanotechnology is still in its infancy in renal imaging; however, it seems that it is the next step in renal biopsy, providing solutions to the limitations of conventional modalities. Hamid Tayebi Khosroshahi, Behzad Abedi, Sabalan Daneshvar, Yashar Sarbaz, and Abolhassan Shakeri Bavil Copyright © 2017 Hamid Tayebi Khosroshahi et al. All rights reserved. Sparse Codebook Model of Local Structures for Retrieval of Focal Liver Lesions Using Multiphase Medical Images Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization and individual trait analysis of the focal liver lesions (FLL) is a challenging task in medical image processing and clinical site. The character analysis of a unconfirmed FLL case would be expected to benefit greatly from the accumulated FLL cases with experts’ analysis, which can be achieved by content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR). CBMIR mainly includes discriminated feature extraction and similarity calculation procedures. Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) (codebook-based model) has been proven to be effective for different classification and retrieval tasks. This study investigates an improved codebook model for the fined-grained medical image representation with the following three advantages: (1) instead of SIFT, we exploit the local patch (structure) as the local descriptor, which can retain all detailed information and is more suitable for the fine-grained medical image applications; (2) in order to more accurately approximate any local descriptor in coding procedure, the sparse coding method, instead of -means algorithm, is employed for codebook learning and coded vector calculation; (3) we evaluate retrieval performance of focal liver lesions (FLL) using multiphase computed tomography (CT) scans, in which the proposed codebook model is separately learned for each phase. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by our experiments on FLL retrieval. Jian Wang, Xian-Hua Han, Yingying Xu, Lanfen Lin, Hongjie Hu, Chongwu Jin, and Yen-Wei Chen Copyright © 2017 Jian Wang et al. All rights reserved. Image Retrieval Method for Multiscale Objects from Optical Colonoscopy Images Wed, 01 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Optical colonoscopy is the most common approach to diagnosing bowel diseases through direct colon and rectum inspections. Periodic optical colonoscopy examinations are particularly important for detecting cancers at early stages while still treatable. However, diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on both the experience and knowledge of the medical doctor. Moreover, it is extremely difficult, even for specialist doctors, to detect the early stages of cancer when obscured by inflammations of the colonic mucosa due to intractable inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. Thus, to assist the UC diagnosis, it is necessary to develop a new technology that can retrieve similar cases of diagnostic target image from cases in the past that stored the diagnosed images with various symptoms of colonic mucosa. In order to assist diagnoses with optical colonoscopy, this paper proposes a retrieval method for colonoscopy images that can cope with multiscale objects. The proposed method can retrieve similar colonoscopy images despite varying visible sizes of the target objects. Through three experiments conducted with real clinical colonoscopy images, we demonstrate that the method is able to retrieve objects of any visible size and any location at a high level of accuracy. Hirokazu Nosato, Hidenori Sakanashi, Eiichi Takahashi, Masahiro Murakawa, Hiroshi Aoki, Ken Takeuchi, and Yasuo Suzuki Copyright © 2017 Hirokazu Nosato et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection Wed, 21 Dec 2016 06:34:16 +0000 Breast cancer is a disease that occurs most often in female cancer patients. Early detection can significantly reduce the mortality rate. Microwave breast imaging, which is noninvasive and harmless to human, offers a promising alternative method to mammography. This paper presents a review of recent advances in microwave imaging for breast cancer detection. We conclude by introducing new research on a microwave imaging system with time-domain measurement that achieves short measurement time and low system cost. In the time-domain measurement system, scan time would take less than 1 sec, and it does not require very expensive equipment such as VNA. Sollip Kwon and Seungjun Lee Copyright © 2016 Sollip Kwon and Seungjun Lee. All rights reserved. Incorporating Colour Information for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Melanoma from Dermoscopy Images: A Retrospective Survey and Critical Analysis Mon, 19 Dec 2016 14:00:11 +0000 Cutaneous melanoma is the most life-threatening form of skin cancer. Although advanced melanoma is often considered as incurable, if detected and excised early, the prognosis is promising. Today, clinicians use computer vision in an increasing number of applications to aid early detection of melanoma through dermatological image analysis (dermoscopy images, in particular). Colour assessment is essential for the clinical diagnosis of skin cancers. Due to this diagnostic importance, many studies have either focused on or employed colour features as a constituent part of their skin lesion analysis systems. These studies range from using low-level colour features, such as simple statistical measures of colours occurring in the lesion, to availing themselves of high-level semantic features such as the presence of blue-white veil, globules, or colour variegation in the lesion. This paper provides a retrospective survey and critical analysis of contributions in this research direction. Ali Madooei and Mark S. Drew Copyright © 2016 Ali Madooei and Mark S. Drew. All rights reserved. The Capabilities and Limitations of Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detecting Kidney Stones: A Retrospective Study Thu, 17 Nov 2016 10:40:15 +0000 The purpose of this work was to investigate the performance of currently available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting kidney stones, compared to computed tomography (CT) results, and to determine the characteristics of successfully detected stones. Patients who had undergone both abdominal/pelvic CT and MRI exams within 30 days were studied. The images were reviewed by two expert radiologists blinded to the patients’ respective radiological diagnoses. The study consisted of four steps: (1) reviewing the MRI images and determining whether any kidney stone(s) are identified; (2) reviewing the corresponding CT images and confirming whether kidney stones are identified; (3) reviewing the MRI images a second time, armed with the information from the corresponding CT, noting whether any kidney stones are positively identified that were previously missed; (4) for all stones MRI-confirmed on previous steps, the radiologist experts being asked to answer whether in retrospect, with knowledge of size and location on corresponding CT, these stones would be affirmed as confidently identified on MRI or not. In this best-case scenario involving knowledge of stones and their locations on concurrent CT, radiologist experts detected 19% of kidney stones on MRI, with stone size being a major factor for stone identification. El-Sayed H. Ibrahim, Joseph G. Cernigliaro, Mellena D. Bridges, Robert A. Pooley, and William E. Haley Copyright © 2016 El-Sayed H. Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved. An Analytical Approach for Fast Recovery of the LSI Properties in Magnetic Particle Imaging Wed, 26 Oct 2016 12:17:21 +0000 Linearity and shift invariance (LSI) characteristics of magnetic particle imaging (MPI) are important properties for quantitative medical diagnosis applications. The MPI image equations have been theoretically shown to exhibit LSI; however, in practice, the necessary filtering action removes the first harmonic information, which destroys the LSI characteristics. This lost information can be constant in the -space reconstruction method. Available recovery algorithms, which are based on signal matching of multiple partial field of views (pFOVs), require much processing time and a priori information at the start of imaging. In this paper, a fast analytical recovery algorithm is proposed to restore the LSI properties of the -space MPI images, representable as an image of discrete concentrations of magnetic material. The method utilizes the one-dimensional (1D) -space imaging kernel and properties of the image and lost image equations. The approach does not require overlapping of pFOVs, and its complexity depends only on a small-sized system of linear equations; therefore, it can reduce the processing time. Moreover, the algorithm only needs a priori information which can be obtained at one imaging process. Considering different particle distributions, several simulations are conducted, and results of 1D and 2D imaging demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Hamed Jabbari Asl and Jungwon Yoon Copyright © 2016 Hamed Jabbari Asl and Jungwon Yoon. All rights reserved. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™ Mon, 26 Sep 2016 11:36:06 +0000 Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists’ confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM) is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%–90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy. John C. Klock, Elaine Iuanow, Bilal Malik, Nancy A. Obuchowski, James Wiskin, and Mark Lenox Copyright © 2016 John C. Klock et al. All rights reserved. Retinal Fundus Image Enhancement Using the Normalized Convolution and Noise Removing Sun, 04 Sep 2016 11:15:36 +0000 Retinal fundus image plays an important role in the diagnosis of retinal related diseases. The detailed information of the retinal fundus image such as small vessels, microaneurysms, and exudates may be in low contrast, and retinal image enhancement usually gives help to analyze diseases related to retinal fundus image. Current image enhancement methods may lead to artificial boundaries, abrupt changes in color levels, and the loss of image detail. In order to avoid these side effects, a new retinal fundus image enhancement method is proposed. First, the original retinal fundus image was processed by the normalized convolution algorithm with a domain transform to obtain an image with the basic information of the background. Then, the image with the basic information of the background was fused with the original retinal fundus image to obtain an enhanced fundus image. Lastly, the fused image was denoised by a two-stage denoising method including the fourth order PDEs and the relaxed median filter. The retinal image databases, including the DRIVE database, the STARE database, and the DIARETDB1 database, were used to evaluate image enhancement effects. The results show that the method can enhance the retinal fundus image prominently. And, different from some other fundus image enhancement methods, the proposed method can directly enhance color images. Peishan Dai, Hanwei Sheng, Jianmei Zhang, Ling Li, Jing Wu, and Min Fan Copyright © 2016 Peishan Dai et al. All rights reserved. Automated Fovea Detection in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scans of Exudative Macular Disease Wed, 31 Aug 2016 14:33:31 +0000 In macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, detection of the foveal center is required for accurate and reproducible follow-up studies, structure function correlation, and measurement grid positioning. However, disease can cause severe obscuring or deformation of the fovea, thus presenting a major challenge in automated detection. We propose a fully automated fovea detection algorithm to extract the fovea position in SD-OCT volumes of eyes with exudative maculopathy. The fovea is classified into 3 main appearances to both specify the detection algorithm used and reduce computational complexity. Based on foveal type classification, the fovea position is computed based on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Mean absolute distance between system and clinical expert annotated fovea positions from a dataset comprised of 240 SD-OCT volumes was 162.3 µm in cystoid macular edema and 262 µm in nAMD. The presented method has cross-vendor functionality, while demonstrating accurate and reliable performance close to typical expert interobserver agreement. The automatically detected fovea positions may be used as landmarks for intra- and cross-patient registration and to create a joint reference frame for extraction of spatiotemporal features in “big data.” Furthermore, reliable analyses of retinal thickness, as well as retinal structure function correlation, may be facilitated. Jing Wu, Sebastian M. Waldstein, Alessio Montuoro, Bianca S. Gerendas, Georg Langs, and Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth Copyright © 2016 Jing Wu et al. All rights reserved. Kinect-Based Correction of Overexposure Artifacts in Knee Imaging with C-Arm CT Systems Tue, 19 Jul 2016 12:10:04 +0000 Objective. To demonstrate a novel approach of compensating overexposure artifacts in CT scans of the knees without attaching any supporting appliances to the patient. C-Arm CT systems offer the opportunity to perform weight-bearing knee scans on standing patients to diagnose diseases like osteoarthritis. However, one serious issue is overexposure of the detector in regions close to the patella, which can not be tackled with common techniques. Methods. A Kinect camera is used to algorithmically remove overexposure artifacts close to the knee surface. Overexposed near-surface knee regions are corrected by extrapolating the absorption values from more reliable projection data. To achieve this, we develop a cross-calibration procedure to transform surface points from the Kinect to CT voxel coordinates. Results. Artifacts at both knee phantoms are reduced significantly in the reconstructed data and a major part of the truncated regions is restored. Conclusion. The results emphasize the feasibility of the proposed approach. The accuracy of the cross-calibration procedure can be increased to further improve correction results. Significance. The correction method can be extended to a multi-Kinect setup for use in real-world scenarios. Using depth cameras does not require prior scans and offers the possibility of a temporally synchronized correction of overexposure artifacts. To achieve this, we develop a cross-calibration procedure to transform surface points from the Kinect to CT voxel coordinates. Johannes Rausch, Andreas Maier, Rebecca Fahrig, Jang-Hwan Choi, Waldo Hinshaw, Frank Schebesch, Sven Haase, Jakob Wasza, Joachim Hornegger, and Christian Riess Copyright © 2016 Johannes Rausch et al. All rights reserved. Fluorescence-Guided Resection of Malignant Glioma with 5-ALA Mon, 27 Jun 2016 09:46:42 +0000 Malignant gliomas are extremely difficult to treat with no specific curative treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic medicine represents a promising technique for neurosurgeons in the treatment of malignant glioma. The resection rate of malignant glioma has increased from 40% to 80% owing to 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD). Furthermore, ALA is very useful because it has no serious complications. Based on previous research, it is apparent that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulates abundantly in malignant glioma tissues after ALA administration. Moreover, it is evident that the mechanism underlying PpIX accumulation in malignant glioma tissues involves an abnormality in porphyrin-heme metabolism, specifically decreased ferrochelatase enzyme activity. During resection surgery, the macroscopic fluorescence of PpIX to the naked eye is more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging, and the alert real time spectrum of PpIX is the most sensitive method. In the future, chemotherapy with new anticancer agents, immunotherapy, and new methods of radiotherapy and gene therapy will be developed; however, ALA will play a key role in malignant glioma treatment before the development of these new treatments. In this paper, we provide an overview and present the results of our clinical research on ALA-PDD. Sadahiro Kaneko and Sadao Kaneko Copyright © 2016 Sadahiro Kaneko and Sadao Kaneko. All rights reserved. Application of Artificial Neural Network Models in Segmentation and Classification of Nodules in Breast Ultrasound Digital Images Thu, 16 Jun 2016 09:37:22 +0000 This research presents a methodology for the automatic detection and characterization of breast sonographic findings. We performed the tests in ultrasound images obtained from breast phantoms made of tissue mimicking material. When the results were considerable, we applied the same techniques to clinical examinations. The process was started employing preprocessing (Wiener filter, equalization, and median filter) to minimize noise. Then, five segmentation techniques were investigated to determine the most concise representation of the lesion contour, enabling us to consider the neural network SOM as the most relevant. After the delimitation of the object, the most expressive features were defined to the morphological description of the finding, generating the input data to the neural Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier. The accuracy achieved during training with simulated images was 94.2%, producing an AUC of 0.92. To evaluating the data generalization, the classification was performed with a group of unknown images to the system, both to simulators and to clinical trials, resulting in an accuracy of 90% and 81%, respectively. The proposed classifier proved to be an important tool for the diagnosis in breast ultrasound. Karem D. Marcomini, Antonio A. O. Carneiro, and Homero Schiabel Copyright © 2016 Karem D. Marcomini et al. All rights reserved. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters Thu, 19 May 2016 12:58:31 +0000 The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI), and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink) embedded with Stein’s unbiased risk estimation (SURE). The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images. Nagashettappa Biradar, M. L. Dewal, ManojKumar Rohit, Sanjaykumar Gowre, and Yogesh Gundge Copyright © 2016 Nagashettappa Biradar et al. All rights reserved. Obtaining Thickness Maps of Corneal Layers Using the Optimal Algorithm for Intracorneal Layer Segmentation Mon, 09 May 2016 12:58:39 +0000 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is one of the most informative methodologies in ophthalmology and provides cross sectional images from anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Corneal diseases can be diagnosed by these images and corneal thickness maps can also assist in the treatment and diagnosis. The need for automatic segmentation of cross sectional images is inevitable since manual segmentation is time consuming and imprecise. In this paper, segmentation methods such as Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), Graph Cut, and Level Set are used for automatic segmentation of three clinically important corneal layer boundaries on OCT images. Using the segmentation of the boundaries in three-dimensional corneal data, we obtained thickness maps of the layers which are created by these borders. Mean and standard deviation of the thickness values for normal subjects in epithelial, stromal, and whole cornea are calculated in central, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal zones (centered on the center of pupil). To evaluate our approach, the automatic boundary results are compared with the boundaries segmented manually by two corneal specialists. The quantitative results show that GMM method segments the desired boundaries with the best accuracy. Hossein Rabbani, Rahele Kafieh, Mahdi Kazemian Jahromi, Sahar Jorjandi, Alireza Mehri Dehnavi, Fedra Hajizadeh, and Alireza Peyman Copyright © 2016 Hossein Rabbani et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Texture Features Used for Classification of Life Stages of Malaria Parasite Mon, 09 May 2016 12:09:01 +0000 Malaria is a vector borne disease widely occurring at equatorial region. Even after decades of campaigning of malaria control, still today it is high mortality causing disease due to improper and late diagnosis. To prevent number of people getting affected by malaria, the diagnosis should be in early stage and accurate. This paper presents an automatic method for diagnosis of malaria parasite in the blood images. Image processing techniques are used for diagnosis of malaria parasite and to detect their stages. The diagnosis of parasite stages is done using features like statistical features and textural features of malaria parasite in blood images. This paper gives a comparison of the textural based features individually used and used in group together. The comparison is made by considering the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the features for the same images in database. Vinayak K. Bairagi and Kshipra C. Charpe Copyright © 2016 Vinayak K. Bairagi and Kshipra C. Charpe. All rights reserved. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images Thu, 31 Mar 2016 17:45:45 +0000 Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images. Suneet Gupta and Rabins Porwal Copyright © 2016 Suneet Gupta and Rabins Porwal. All rights reserved. Polychromatic Iterative Statistical Material Image Reconstruction for Photon-Counting Computed Tomography Thu, 17 Mar 2016 06:48:58 +0000 This work proposes a dedicated statistical algorithm to perform a direct reconstruction of material-decomposed images from data acquired with photon-counting detectors (PCDs) in computed tomography. It is based on local approximations (surrogates) of the negative logarithmic Poisson probability function. Exploiting the convexity of this function allows for parallel updates of all image pixels. Parallel updates can compensate for the rather slow convergence that is intrinsic to statistical algorithms. We investigate the accuracy of the algorithm for ideal photon-counting detectors. Complementarily, we apply the algorithm to simulation data of a realistic PCD with its spectral resolution limited by K-escape, charge sharing, and pulse-pileup. For data from both an ideal and realistic PCD, the proposed algorithm is able to correct beam-hardening artifacts and quantitatively determine the material fractions of the chosen basis materials. Via regularization we were able to achieve a reduction of image noise for the realistic PCD that is up to 90% lower compared to material images form a linear, image-based material decomposition using FBP images. Additionally, we find a dependence of the algorithms convergence speed on the threshold selection within the PCD. Thomas Weidinger, Thorsten M. Buzug, Thomas Flohr, Steffen Kappler, and Karl Stierstorfer Copyright © 2016 Thomas Weidinger et al. All rights reserved. A Dictionary Learning Method with Total Generalized Variation for MRI Reconstruction Tue, 15 Mar 2016 16:55:53 +0000 Reconstructing images from their noisy and incomplete measurements is always a challenge especially for medical MR image with important details and features. This work proposes a novel dictionary learning model that integrates two sparse regularization methods: the total generalized variation (TGV) approach and adaptive dictionary learning (DL). In the proposed method, the TGV selectively regularizes different image regions at different levels to avoid oil painting artifacts largely. At the same time, the dictionary learning adaptively represents the image features sparsely and effectively recovers details of images. The proposed model is solved by variable splitting technique and the alternating direction method of multiplier. Extensive simulation experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method consistently recovers MR images efficiently and outperforms the current state-of-the-art approaches in terms of higher PSNR and lower HFEN values. Hongyang Lu, Jingbo Wei, Qiegen Liu, Yuhao Wang, and Xiaohua Deng Copyright © 2016 Hongyang Lu et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Compressed Sensing Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Exponential Wavelet Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm with Random Shift Tue, 15 Mar 2016 12:21:18 +0000 Aim. It can help improve the hospital throughput to accelerate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. Patients will benefit from less waiting time. Task. In the last decade, various rapid MRI techniques on the basis of compressed sensing (CS) were proposed. However, both computation time and reconstruction quality of traditional CS-MRI did not meet the requirement of clinical use. Method. In this study, a novel method was proposed with the name of exponential wavelet iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with random shift (abbreviated as EWISTARS). It is composed of three successful components: (i) exponential wavelet transform, (ii) iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm, and (iii) random shift. Results. Experimental results validated that, compared to state-of-the-art approaches, EWISTARS obtained the least mean absolute error, the least mean-squared error, and the highest peak signal-to-noise ratio. Conclusion. EWISTARS is superior to state-of-the-art approaches. Yudong Zhang, Jiquan Yang, Jianfei Yang, Aijun Liu, and Ping Sun Copyright © 2016 Yudong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Contrast-Based 3D/2D Registration of the Left Atrium: Fast versus Consistent Tue, 08 Mar 2016 11:44:37 +0000 For augmented fluoroscopy during cardiac ablation, a preoperatively acquired 3D model of a patient’s left atrium (LA) can be registered to X-ray images recorded during a contrast agent (CA) injection. An automatic registration method that works also for small amounts of CA is desired. We propose two similarity measures: The first focuses on edges of the patient anatomy. The second computes a contrast agent distribution estimate (CADE) inside the 3D model and rates its consistency with the CA as seen in biplane fluoroscopic images. Moreover, temporal filtering on the obtained registration results of a sequence is applied using a Markov chain framework. Evaluation was performed on 11 well-contrasted clinical angiographic sequences and 10 additional sequences with less CA. For well-contrasted sequences, the error for all 73 frames was 7.9 6.3 mm and it dropped to 4.6 4.0 mm when registering to an automatically selected, well enhanced frame in each sequence. Temporal filtering reduced the error for all frames from 7.9 6.3 mm to 5.7 4.6 mm. The error was typically higher if less CA was used. A combination of both similarity measures outperforms a previously proposed similarity measure. The mean accuracy for well contrasted sequences is in the range of other proposed manual registration methods. Matthias Hoffmann, Christopher Kowalewski, Andreas Maier, Klaus Kurzidim, Norbert Strobel, and Joachim Hornegger Copyright © 2016 Matthias Hoffmann et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Cardiac Function Abnormality from MRI Images Using Normalized Wall Thickness Temporal Patterns Tue, 01 Mar 2016 11:13:32 +0000 Purpose. To develop a method for identifying abnormal myocardial function based on studying the normalized wall motion pattern during the cardiac cycle. Methods. The temporal pattern of the normalized myocardial wall thickness is used as a feature vector to assess the cardiac wall motion abnormality. Principal component analysis is used to reduce the feature dimensionality and the maximum likelihood method is used to differentiate between normal and abnormal features. The proposed method was applied on a dataset of 27 cases from normal subjects and patients. Results. The developed method achieved 81.5%, 85%, and 88.5% accuracy for identifying abnormal contractility in the basal, midventricular, and apical slices, respectively. Conclusions. A novel feature vector, namely, the normalized wall thickness, has been introduced for detecting myocardial regional wall motion abnormality. The proposed method provides assessment of the regional myocardial contractility for each cardiac segment and slice; therefore, it could be a valuable tool for automatic and fast determination of regional wall motion abnormality from conventional cine MRI images. Mai Wael, El-Sayed H. Ibrahim, and Ahmed S. Fahmy Copyright © 2016 Mai Wael et al. All rights reserved. Digital Microdroplet Ejection Technology-Based Heterogeneous Objects Prototyping Mon, 15 Feb 2016 06:24:27 +0000 An integrate fabrication framework is presented to build heterogeneous objects (HEO) using digital microdroplets injecting technology and rapid prototyping. The heterogeneous materials part design and manufacturing method in structure and material was used to change the traditional process. The net node method was used for digital modeling that can configure multimaterials in time. The relationship of material, color, and jetting nozzle was built. The main important contributions are to combine the structure, material, and visualization in one process and give the digital model for manufacture. From the given model, it is concluded that the method is effective for HEO. Using microdroplet rapid prototyping and the model given in the paper HEO could be gotten basically. The model could be used in 3D biomanufacturing. Na Li, Jiquan Yang, Chunmei Feng, Jianfei Yang, Liya Zhu, and Aiqing Guo Copyright © 2016 Na Li et al. All rights reserved. Parallel Digital Watermarking Process on Ultrasound Medical Images in Multicores Environment Thu, 11 Feb 2016 07:17:01 +0000 With the advancement of technology in communication network, it facilitated digital medical images transmitted to healthcare professionals via internal network or public network (e.g., Internet), but it also exposes the transmitted digital medical images to the security threats, such as images tampering or inserting false data in the images, which may cause an inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. Medical image distortion is not to be tolerated for diagnosis purposes; thus a digital watermarking on medical image is introduced. So far most of the watermarking research has been done on single frame medical image which is impractical in the real environment. In this paper, a digital watermarking on multiframes medical images is proposed. In order to speed up multiframes watermarking processing time, a parallel watermarking processing on medical images processing by utilizing multicores technology is introduced. An experiment result has shown that elapsed time on parallel watermarking processing is much shorter than sequential watermarking processing. Hui Liang Khor, Siau-Chuin Liew, and Jasni Mohd. Zain Copyright © 2016 Hui Liang Khor et al. All rights reserved.