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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2010, Article ID 915327, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/915327
Review Article

Nanotechnology and Dental Implants

1Inserm U957, Bone Resorption Physiopathology and Primary Bone Tumors Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nantes - 1 rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes cedex 1, France
2Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), CNRS, Université de Nantes - 2, rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes cedex 3, France
3ERT2004, Faculty of Dental Surgery, University of Nantes - Place Alexis Ricordeau, 44042 Nantes Cedex 01, France

Received 27 October 2010; Accepted 2 December 2010

Academic Editor: Tadashi Kokubo

Copyright © 2010 Sandrine Lavenus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The long-term clinical success of dental implants is related to their early osseointegration. This paper reviews the different steps of the interactions between biological fluids, cells, tissues, and surfaces of implants. Immediately following implantation, implants are in contact with proteins and platelets from blood. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells will then condition the peri-implant tissue healing. Direct bone-to-implant contact is desired for a biomechanical anchoring of implants to bone rather than fibrous tissue encapsulation. Surfaces properties such as chemistry and roughness play a determinant role in these biological interactions. Physicochemical features in the nanometer range may ultimately control the adsorption of proteins as well as the adhesion and differentiation of cells. Nanotechnologies are increasingly used for surface modifications of dental implants. Another approach to enhance osseointegration is the application of thin calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings. Bioactive CaP nanocrystals deposited on titanium implants are resorbable and stimulate bone apposition and healing. Future nanometer-controlled surfaces may ultimately direct the nature of peri-implant tissues and improve their clinical success rate.