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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2014, Article ID 609624, 17 pages
Research Article

An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

1Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, P.O. Box 11727, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt
2Environmental Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Gaza Strip, Palestine

Received 24 May 2014; Revised 18 September 2014; Accepted 18 September 2014; Published 7 October 2014

Academic Editor: Abdelwahab Omri

Copyright © 2014 Nour Sh. El-Gendy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.