Influence of Vanadium 4+ and 5+ Ions on the Differentiation and Activation of Human Osteoclasts
Quantitative analysis of TRAP expression by osteoclasts and monocytes supplemented with osteoclast differentiation cytokines in the presence of increasing concentrations (0 to 3 μM) of V4+ ions. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) indicates the average TRAP expression per cell. The MFI value indicates relative TRAP expression when compared with the control (MFI = 121). No differences were noted between the same concentrations of V4+ and V5+ ions () ().