Influence of Vanadium 4+ and 5+ Ions on the Differentiation and Activation of Human Osteoclasts
Assessment of bone resorption. The images show a representative example of resorption pits (dark spots) on dentine slides after 21 days of incubation under different culture conditions. (a) Untreated osteoclasts. (b) Osteoclasts + 4 μM vanadium 4+ ions.
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