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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2018, Article ID 7275617, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7275617
Research Article

Early Biofilm Formation on UV Light Activated Nanoporous TiO2 Surfaces In Vivo

1PhD Student, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Stomatognathic Physiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland
2Professor, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland
3Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Stomatognathic Physiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland
4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
5Adjunct Professor, Turku Clinical Biomaterials Centre, University of Turku, Finland
6Professor, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Stomatognathic Physiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland
7Chief Hospital Dentist, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Correspondence should be addressed to Nagat Areid; if.utu@eraamn

Received 7 September 2018; Accepted 8 November 2018; Published 22 November 2018

Academic Editor: Feng-Huei Lin

Copyright © 2018 Nagat Areid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. To explore early S. mutans biofilm formation on hydrothermally induced nanoporous TiO2 surfaces in vivo and to examine the effect of UV light activation on the biofilm development. Materials and Methods. Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy discs (n = 40) were divided into four groups with different surface treatments: noncoated titanium alloy (NC); UV treated noncoated titanium alloy (UVNC); hydrothermally induced TiO2 coating (HT); and UV treated titanium alloy with hydrothermally induced TiO2 coating (UVHT). In vivo plaque formation was studied in 10 healthy, nonsmoking adult volunteers. Titanium discs were randomly distributed among the maxillary first and second molars. UV treatment was administered for 60 min immediately before attaching the discs in subjects’ molars. Plaque samples were collected 24h after the attachment of the specimens. Mutans streptococci (MS), non-mutans streptococci, and total facultative bacteria were cultured, and colonies were counted. Results. The plaque samples of NC (NC + UVNC) surfaces showed over 2 times more often S. mutans when compared to TiO2 surfaces (HT + UVHT), with the number of colonized surfaces equal to 7 and 3, respectively. Conclusion. This in vivo study suggested that HT TiO2 surfaces, which we earlier showed to improve blood coagulation and encourage human gingival fibroblast attachment in vitro, do not enhance salivary microbial (mostly mutans streptococci) adhesion and initial biofilm formation when compared with noncoated titanium alloy. UV light treatment provided Ti-6Al-4V surfaces with antibacterial properties and showed a trend towards less biofilm formation when compared with non-UV treated titanium surfaces.