Table 2: Various electrolyte solutions and applied potentials used for anodizing Ti substrates [39].

SampleElectrolyte solutionApplied potential (V)Results

11 wt% HF60Dot-like structures from fast dissolution of oxide layer

21 M H3PO4+ 1 wt% HF60Nanopowder granules on dot-like structures

35 M H3PO4+ 1 wt% HF60Nanopowders

410 M H3PO4+ 1 wt% HF60Nanopowders + Nanotubes

51 M H3PO460Cracking of barrier oxide layer

61 M H3PO4200Microporous structure

71 M H3PO4+ 1 wt% HF20Nanotubes