International Journal of Cell Biology / 2010 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

The Role of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Cell Proliferation and Cell Death in Human Malignancies

Figure 3

Effects of COX-2 inhibitors on cell proliferation. Cell cycle is divided into different steps: G1, S, G2, and M (mitosis). This process is regulated by cyclin proteins, which activate cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) and phosphatase (i.e., CDC25) or kinase like cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as p16, p15, p18, p19, p21, and p27 [54]. Selective COX-2 inhibitors are able to modulate some cell cycle checkpoints. In this picture, some examples of this link have been shown for different cell types: MC26, colorectal cancer; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma; K562, chronic myeloid leukemia. Cdk; cyclin-dependent kinase; pRb, retinoblastoma protein; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

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