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International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 354914, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/354914
Review Article

The Physiological Role of Mitophagy: New Insights into Phosphorylation Events

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan

Received 14 October 2011; Revised 16 December 2011; Accepted 19 December 2011

Academic Editor: Fulvio Reggiori

Copyright © 2012 Yuko Hirota et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mitochondria play an essential role in oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and the regulation of apoptosis. However, this organelle also produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that continually inflict oxidative damage on mitochondrial DNA, proteins, and lipids, which causes further production of ROS. To oppose this oxidative stress, mitochondria possess quality control systems that include antioxidant enzymes and the repair or degradation of damaged mitochondrial DNA and proteins. If the oxidative stress exceeds the capacity of the mitochondrial quality control system, it seems that autophagy degrades the damaged mitochondria to maintain cellular homeostasis. Indeed, recent evidence from yeast to mammals indicates that the autophagy-dependent degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) contributes to eliminate dysfunctional, aged, or excess mitochondria. In this paper, we describe the molecular processes and regulatory mechanisms of mitophagy in yeast and mammalian cells.