Figure 1: Overview of the signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Initiation of upstream signaling proteins in the NPC development begins with LMP1. Subsequent induced activity of downstream proteins in several pathways such as β-catenin, NF-κB, and AP-1 leads to dysregulation of cell proliferation (cdk/cyclin protein), cell transformation (TERT), increase in angiogenesis (IL-8) and metastasis (E-cadherin, MMPs), and inhibition of apoptosis (Bcl-2, p53). Green arrows and red blunt-end arrows represent up- and downregulation, respectively.