Prostaglandins in cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion summary table.
Adhesive factor Tissue PG Biological effect Refs Cadherins ↓E-cadherin RIE-S ↑PGE 2 COX-2-mediated PGE 2 production in rat intestinal epithelial cells (RIE) downregulates E-cadherin [ 88] ↓E-cadherin SCC ↑PGE 2 Downregulates E-cadherin through the EP2 receptor during squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) progression [ 53] ↑E-cadherin NSCLC ↓PGE 2 S-valproate and S-diclofenac increased E-cadherin but reduced vimentin and ZEB1 [ 84] ↓E-cadherin TCC ↑PGE 2 Reciprocal correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and E-cadherin in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). [ 85, 87] ↑E-cadherin Melanoma ↑PGE 2 Decrease of TGF β1-induced EMT properties in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells is associated with regaining E-cadherin expression [ 257] ↑E-cadherin MDCK ↑PGD 2 Decrease of TGF β1-induced EMT properties in MDCK cells is associated with regaining E-cadherin expression [ 258] ↓VE-cadherin HLVE ↓PGI 2 Inhibition of PGI 2-mediated human lung vascular endothelial cell (HLVE) responses decreased VE-cadherin expression and increased eosinophil adhesion [ 259] Focal adhesions ↑Actin bundles HeLa ↑PGE 2 Examination of cyclooxygenase-dependent actin bundles in HeLa cells. [ 144] CREB activation Raw264.7 ↑COX2 Examination of Col-I on the COX-2 expression and the signaling pathways in macrophages. [ 145] ↑Focal adhesions Osteoblasts ↑COX2 Focal adhesion promotes fluid shear stress induction of COX-2 and PGE 2 release in osteoblasts [ 146– 148] ↑Focal adhesions 293-EBNA-HEK ↑PGF2 α Regulates Rho-mediated morphological changes [ 150, 151] Integrins
Caco-2 ↑LTD4/↑PGE 2 Increased adhesion to collagen I. [ 177]
HT-29 ↓PGE 2 Decreased adhesion and migration on extracellular matrix [ 178]
Mammary TC ↓PGE 2 Decreased adhesion to laminin [ 179]
HLC ↑PGE 2 Increased adhesion of human lung carcinoma (HLC) cells to fibronectin [ 180] αIIb
B16a melanoma ↑12-HETE Increased adhesion to fibronectin, endothelial cells, and endothelial cell matrix [ 182, 183]