Table 3: Effect in vitro and in vivo of methyl jasmonate (MJ) combined with other anticancer agents.

JasmonateDrug conc. range/vehicleModelEffectsReferences

(1) MJ + BCNU (nitrosourea)
in vitro  
MJ: Fixed conc.
Pancreatic MIA PaCa-1
Mitochondriotoxic
synergic cytotoxicity
[170]
(2) MJ + 2DG,
adriamycin, taxol, BCNU or cisplatin
in vitro  
MJ: 0.5–2.0 mM/EtOH
Taxol, cisplatin: 1–10 µg/mL
CT26, DA-3, GTRAMP C1, MCF7, MIA PaCa-2, D122, and BCL1
Strong cooperative
effects of MJ + 2DG
and MJ + other drugs
(3) MJ + adriamycin
in vivo  
MJ i.v.: 20–150 mg/kg dissolved in lipofundin.
Adr (DOX) i.p.:
4 mg/kg
Balb/c mice injected i.p. with 1 × 104 chronic BCL1 cells lymphocyte leukemia cellsMJ + Adr: significant prolonged survival effect

(4) MJ + PI3K/Akt inhibitors
in vitro  
MJ: 0.5–3.0 mM
EtOH/DMSO
Sarcoma MCA-105, SaOS-2
MJ-induced activation of Akt ↑synergic cytotoxicity
   
[49]
(5) MJ + 2DG
in vitro  
MJ: 0.5–3.0 mM
EtOH/DMSO
Sarcoma MCA-105, SaOS-22DG: pAkt, MJ-ind. pAkt
MJ + 2DG: ↑synergic cytotoxicity  

(6) MJ + irradiation
in vitro  
0.5–2.0 mM
DMSO
Irradiated prostate PC-3 (radiation induces Bcl-2 expression) radiation-induced Bcl-2
↑radiation sensitivity PC-3
↑caspase-3
[104]

(7) MJ and/or POH and/or
cis-platin (CP)
in vitro  
Both tested
at IC20
Human MDA-MB-435
[74]
MJ + POH: ↑TNFR1 Δ ↑cytotoxicity; cell cycle arrest at G0/G1↑apoptosis
+ CP: all effects enhanced
[251]
Human breast
MDA-MB-231
↑apoptosis

(8) MJ + TRAIL
in vitro
MJ 0.5 mM + TRAIL (100–200 ng·mL−1) CRC cancer cells survivin (IAP)
Wnt/TCF pathway
↑TRAIL-induced apoptosis
↑caspase activity
[32]

(9) MJ + Smac
in vitro  
MJ: 0.5–2.0 mM DMSOHuman bladder cancer EJ, T24Synergy: ↑IAPs-bound caspase 3 ↑apoptosis [254]
Human embryonic kidney HEK 293  No cytotoxicity

(10) MJ + Smac7N (IAP antagonist)
in vitro  
MJ: 0.5–2.0 mM DMSOHormone-independent prostate DU-145, PC-3
Human proximal tubular epithelial HK-2 cells (overexpressing IAPs)
Smac7N: ↑MJ-induced apoptosis by caspase-9-dependent (intrinsic) and independent (extrinsic) pathways[255]

(11) MJ + cisplatin (0.1–0.5 μM)
MJ + X-rays
(0.25–3 Gy)
MJ + -rays
MJ: 0.1–1.0 mM EtOHCervical cancer cells
SiHa, CaSki, HeLa, and C33A
viability
survival
IC50 radiation dose
[29]

(12) MJ + 5-FU
in vitro
0.5 mM MJ/1 h, then + 5-FUHuman adenocarcinoma
colon HT-39
IC50 5-FU (5 → 2.5 mM) [31]

BCNU: 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea; 2DG: 2-deoxy-D-glucose; 5-FU: 5-fluorouracile; IAP: inhibitors of apoptosis; MM: multiple myeloma; POH: perillyl alcohol; smac: second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases; Smac7N: a peptide that contains the N-terminal seven residues of smac; TNFR1: tumor-necrosis factor receptor-1; TRAIL: tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) related apoptosis-inducing ligand.