International Journal of Cell Biology / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Stem Cells Applications in Regenerative Medicine and Disease Therapeutics

Table 1

Application of stem cells in regenerative medicine: stem cells (ESCs, TSPSCs, MSCs, UCSCs, BMSCs, and iPSCs) have diverse applications in tissue regeneration and disease therapeutics.

SCsDiseaseFactors causing disease Mode of stem cells application Physiological and mechanistic aspects of stem cells therapeutics Improvements in disease signatures & future use References

ESCsSpinal cord injuriesInfection, cancer, and accidents ESCs transplantation to injury site ESCs and secreted vasculogenic and neurogenic factor support tissue homing Regeneration of spinal tissue and improved balance and sensation [15]
ARMD and glaucomaMacular cones degeneration ESCs-derived cones and RGCs transplantation to eye COCO (activating TGF-β, BMP, and Wnt) & BRN3 (knock-in by CRISPER-Cas9) make ESCs become cones and RGCs form cells sheet & neuronal connection Recovery from ARMD and macular defects & restoration of vision [16, 17]
Cardiovascular diseaseDiabetes, drugs, genetic factor, and life styleESCs-derived CMs & biomaterial coaxed ESCs Cardiomyocytes express GCaMP3, secreting vasculogenic factors, and Tbox3 differentiates ESCs into SANPCs Suppresses heart arrhythmias. CMs electrophysiologically integrate to heart as pacemaker [18, 19, 28]
Liver injuriesToxins, drugs, genetic factors, and infectionTransplantation of ESCs-derived hepatocytes ESCs-hepatocyte conversion is marked with expression of Cytp450, PXR, CYPA4&29, HNF4-α, and UGTA1; cells in transplant repopulate injured liver tissue Regeneration of liver tissue can be used as model for screening of drugs [20, 23, 24]
DiabetesLife style, heart defects, and geneticsTransplantation of ESCs-derived PPCsProgenitors (CD24+, CD49+  &  CD133+) differentiate into β-cells, secrete insulin, and express PDX1, GCK, and GLUT2Improvement in glucose level and obesity can be used for treatment of T1DM and T2DM [25, 26]
OsteoarthritisWhen cartilage tissue wears awayTransplantation of chondrocytes organoids Chondrocytes (SOX9+  & collagen-II+) form cells aggregate & remain active for 12 wks at transplantation site Regeneration of cartilage tissue can be used for treatment of injuries faced by athletes [27]

TSPSCsDiabetesLife style and genetic factorsTransplantation of SCs derived PPCs organoid PPCs need niche supported active FGF & Notch signalling to become β-cellPPCs occupancy as β-cell can treat T1DM & T2DM [25, 29, 30]
Neurodental problemsAccidents, age, and genetic factorsTransplantation of DSPSCs as neuronsNeurons express nestin, GFAP, βIII-tubulin, and L-type Ca2+ channels Possible application in treatment of neurodental abnormalities [31, 32]
Acoustic problemsAge, noise, drugs, and infection IESCs/IESCs-derived hair cells transplantationγ-secretase shuts Notch by β-catenin & Atoh1 in lrg5+IESCs to be hair cells Cochlear regeneration leads to restoration of acoustic functions [34, 35]
Intestinal degenerationGenetic factors and food borne infectionsIPCs derived crypt-villi organoid transplantationMϕ, myofibroblasts, and bacteria signals IPCs to be crypt-villi organoid tissueRegeneration of goblet mucosa can treat intestinal defects [3638]
Corneal diseasesBurns, genetics, and inflammationLPSCs transplantation to corneal tissue LPSCs in transplant marked by ABCB5 differentiate into mature cornea Regeneration of corneal tissue might treat multiple eye disease [39, 40]
Muscular deformitiesInfection, drugs, and autoimmunityTransplantation of PEG fibrinogen coaxed MABs PDGF from MABs attract vasculogenic and neurogenic cells to transplant site Muscle fibril regeneration; skeletal muscle defects treatment [41, 42]
Eye disease & retinopathyToxins, burns, and genetic factorsAdSCs intravitreal transplantation AdSCs from healthy donor produce higher vasoprotective factors Restoration of vascularisation, diabetic retinopathy treatment[44, 45]
Cardiac dysfunctionsAge, genetic factors, and toxins Systemic infusion of CA-AdSCs myocardiumCA-AdSCs to epithelium differentiation are superior to AdSCs Regeneration of ischemic myocardium [47, 48]

MSCsBladder deformitiesCystitis, cancer, and infectionTransplantation of BD-MSCs to bladderBDMSCs (CD105+, CD73+, CD34, and CD45) with SIS heal bladder in 10 wks Bladder regeneration from different origins MSCs [50, 51]
Dental problemsInfection, cancer age, and accidentsTransplants of EMSCs + DSCs biopolymer tissue EMSC-DSCs and vasculogenic factors in biopolymer give rise to mature teeth units Regeneration of oral tissue and application in periodontics [31, 52]
Bone degenerationInjuries and tumor autoimmunity Coaxed MSCs transplant & MSCs infusion Actin modelling by cytochalasin-D transforms MSCs into osteoblasts Regeneration of bones, reduction in injury pain [5355]
Muscle degenerationGenetic factors and work stressCoaxed MSCs transplant and MSCs infusion Alginate gel protects MSCs from immune attack and controls GFs release Regeneration of heart scar and muscle tissue in controlled way [56, 57]
AlopeciaAge, disease, and medicine use Transplantation of GAG-coated DPCsGAG coating mimics ECM microenvironment, promoting DPCs regenerationRegeneration of hair follicle for treatment of alopecia [58]

UCSCsCongenital heart defectsDevelopmental errorsTransplantation of fibrin coaxed AFSCsAddition of VEFG to PEG coaxed AFSCs promotes organogenesis Regeneration of tissue repair for treatment of heart defects [59, 60]
DiabetesLife style and genetic factors WJ-SCs, transplantation, and intravenous injection WJ-factors & Mϕ differentiate WJ-SCs into β-cells, decreasing IL6 & IL1βImprovement in function of β-cells leads to treatment of diabetes [7, 9, 6163]
SLEAutoimmunityIntravenous infusion of WJ-SCsWJ-SCs decrease SLEDAI & BILAG; reinfusion protects from disease relapse Improvement in renal functions & stopping degeneration of tissues [64]
LSD & neurodegenerative diseasesGenetics, tumor, age, and life styleAllogenic UCSCs cells and biomaterial coaxed UCSCs organoids Organoids consisted of neuroblasts (GFAP+, Nestin+, and Ki67+) & SCs (OCT4+, SOC2+); UCSCs recover from MSE deficiency and improve cognition Treatment of Krabbe’s disease, hurler syndrome, MLD, TSD, ALD, AD, ALS, SCI, SCI, TBI, Parkinson's, stroke, and so forth [6567]
Cartilage and tendon injuriesAccidentTransplantation of UCB-SCs, UCB-SCs-HA gelHA gel factors promote regeneration of hyaline cartilage & tendons in wks time Recovery from tendons and cartilage injuries [68, 69]
Hodgkin’s lymphomaGenetic and environmental Transplantation of UCSCsSecond dose infection of allogenic UCSCs improves patients life by 30% Treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and other cancers[10]
Peritoneal fibrosisLong term renal dialysis and fibrosisWJ-SCs, transplantation by IP injection WJ-SCs prevent programmed cells death and peritoneal wall thickness Effective in treatment of encapsulating peritoneal fibrosis[70]

BMSCsAnaemia and blood cancerInjury, genetics autoimmunityTwo-step infusion of lymphoid and myeloid Haplo identical BMSCs can reconstruct immunity, which is major process for minority Treatment of aplastic anaemia & haematological malignancies [71]
AIDSHIV1 infectionTransplantation of HIV1 resistant CD4+ cellsAnti-HIV1 CD4+ cells express HIV1 anti-RNA, which restrict HIV infection Treatment of AIDS as an alternative of antiretroviral [72, 73]
Blood clotting disordersLack of plateletsTransplantation of megakaryocyte organoidsGFs in silk sponge, microtubule 3D scaffolds mimic bone marrow Therapeutics of burns and blood clotting diseases[74, 75]
Neurodegenerative diseasesAccidents, age, trauma, and strokeFocal transplant of BMSCs with LALA+BMSCs induce neovascularisation that directs microglia for colonization Treatment of neuronal damage disorders and cognitive restoration[76]
Orodental deformitiesTrauma, disease, and birth defects Bone marrow derived stem & progenitor (TRC) CD14+  &  CD90+ TRC accelerate alveolar jaw bone regenerationRegeneration of defects in oral bone, skin, and gum [77]
Diaphragm abnormalitiesAccidents & birth defectsImplantation of decellularized diaphragmBMSCs niche perfused hemidiaphragm has similar myography & spirometry Replacement therapy by donor derived niched diaphragm [8]

iPSCsEye defectsAge, genetics, and birth defectsiPSCs derived NPCs transplantation NPCs form 5-6 layers of photoreceptor nuclei, restoring visual acuity Treatment of ARMD and other age-related eye defects [7880]
Neurodegenerative disordersAccidents, age, trauma, and strokeiGABA-INs and cortical spheroid transplantation(iGABA-INs) secrete GABA; FOX1G cause ASD, spheroid mimics to brain ASD, Alzheimer's, seizer, and obstinate epilepsies treatment [8184]
Liver & lung diseasesA1AD deficiencyTransplantation of A1AD mutation corrected iPSCsA1AD is encoded by SERPINA1 in liver, and mutation leads to drugs sensitivity Treatment of COPD causing lungs and liver degeneration [85]
DiabetesLife style and genetic factors iPSCs derived β-cells transplantation Skin to β-cells reprogramming phase through cDE & cPF requires GPs Treatment of T1DM and T2DM and insulin production[86]
Lung degenerationTuberculosis, cancer, and fibrosis Biomaterial coaxed iPSCs transplantationMiniature iPSCs lung resembles airways and alveoli, model drug testing Regeneration of lung tissue [87]
SIDs and AIDSAge, genetic factors, and infection Transplantation of Oct4 and Nanog corrected iPSCsCRISPER-Cas9 generate iPSCs in single step; iPSCs-Mϕ resists HIV1 Immunotherapy of SIDs, HIV1, and other immune diseases [80, 88, 89]

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.