International Journal of Chronic Diseases / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Lived Experience of Lupus Flares: Features, Triggers, and Management in an Australian Female Cohort

Table 1

Demographic characteristics of patient participant groups.

Borderline SLE
ACR 3+1*
()
SLE
ACR 4+
()
All patients
()
One-way ANVOVA

Mean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SD value

Age (years)
Diagnosis (years)
Medical review frequency0.01
Current health score (VAS scale)**0.02
Stress score (VAS scale)***
Outdoor hours per year
Average hours outdoors per day
Body Mass Index score

no. (%)no. (%)no. (%) value

Comorbidity
 Autoimmune illness other than SLE15 (71.4)47 (58.8)62 (61.4)
 Other illnesses not autoimmune16 (76.2)50 (62.5)66 (65.4)
Ethnicity
 Caucasian21 (100)78 (97.5)99 (98)
 Other (Asian)2 (2.5)2 (2)
Educational background 0.0
 Year 9 (15 years)9 (42.9)8 (10.0)17 (16.8)
 School certificate/leaving Certificate4 (19.1)24 (30.0)28 (27.7)
 Higher school certificate1 (4.8)2 (2.5)3.0 (3.0)
 Apprenticeship 1 (4.8)4 (5.0)5.0 (5.0)
 Tertiary (university/college)3 (14.3)36 (45.0)39 (39.0)
 Postgraduate studies2 (9.5)6 (7.5)8 (7.9)
Socioeconomic status
 Above average2 (9.5)15 (18.8)17 (16.8)
 Average17 (80.9)56 (70.0)73 (72.3)
 Below average2 (9.5)9 (11.3)11 (10.9)
Smoking status
 Current smoker2 (9.5)6 (7.5)8 (7.9)
 Past smoker8 (38.1)30 (37.5)38 (37.6)
Use immune therapy medications17 (81)67 (83.8)84 (83.2)
Use vitamin D supplementation4 (19.1)42 (52.5)46 (45.5)0.01
Use hormone supplementation 3 (14.3)30 (37.5)33 (32.8)
Regular sun12 (57.1)39 (48.8)51 (50.5)
Regular sun + sunscreen 14 (66.7)65 (81.2)79 (78.2)
Clinical ACR SLE features
 Malar rash8 (38.1)57 (71.3)65 (64.4)0.01
 Discoid rash3 (3.8)3 (3)
 Photosensitivity4 (19.1)43 (53.8)47 (46.5)0.01
 Oral/nasal ulcers29 (36.3)29 (28.7)0.00
 Arthritis17 (81)63 (78.8)80 (79.2)
 Serositis1 (4.8)20 (25.0)21 (20.8)
 Renal disorder4 (19.1)37 (46.3)41 (40.6)0.03
 Neurological disorder6 (28.6)33 (41.3)39 (38.6)
 Haematological disorder4 (19.1)39 (48.8)43 (42.6)0.02
 Immunologic disorder3 (14.3)27 (33.8)30 (29.7)
 Antinuclear antibody (ANA)17 (81)73 (91.3)90 (89.1)
 Pharmacological challenge****21 (100)75 (93.8)96 (95)

ACR 3+1 health record audit documented ACR criteria count + positive response to pharmacological challenge (****).
**Visual Analogue Scale score of 0–100: current Health (0) extremely Poor, (100) excellent.
***Visual Analogue Scale score of 0–100: stress level (0) no stress at all, (100) highly stressed.
****Documented positive response to pharmacological challenge of oral steroids (prednisolone) or hydroxychloroquine.

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