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International Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 702890, 13 pages
Research Article

A Numerical Study of Spray Characteristics in Medium Speed Engine Fueled by Different HFO/n-Butanol Blends

Department of Marine Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, No. 424, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran, Iran

Received 25 January 2014; Accepted 13 March 2014; Published 22 May 2014

Academic Editor: Evangelos Tsotsas

Copyright © 2014 Hashem Nowruzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the present study, nonreacting and nonevaporating spray characteristics of heavy fuel oil (HFO)/n-butanol blends are numerically investigated under two different high pressure injections in medium speed engines. An Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase scheme is used to simulate blend of C14H30 as HFO and 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by volume of n-butanol. OpenFOAM CFD toolbox is modified and implemented to study the effect of different blends of HFO/n-butanol on the spray characteristics at 600 and 1000 bar. To validate the presented simulations, current numerical results are compared against existing experimental data and good compliance is achieved. Based on the numerical findings, addition of n-butanol to HFO increases the particles volume in parcels at 600 bar. It was also found that blend fuels increase the number of spray particles and the average velocity of spray compared to pure HFO. Moreover, under injection pressure of 1000 bar, HFO/n-butanol blends compared to pure HFO fuel decrease particles volume in parcels of spray. Another influence of HFO/n-butanol blends is the decrease in average of particles diameter in parcels. Meanwhile, the effect of HFO/n-butanol on spray length is proved to be negligible. Finally, it can be concluded that higher injection pressure improves the spray efficiency.