Table 5: Evaluation of formative constructs (full collinearity, weights, and -value).

Construct Measurement modelItemsWeightsVIF-values values

Cognitive engagementFormativeConsAtten0.721.547.330.00
Absorption0.391.543.240.00
Affective engagementFormativeDedication0.481.6714.900.00
Enthusiasm0.621.6716.350.00
Behavioral engagementFormativeInteraction0.761.39910.860.00
Social connection0.361.3994.160.00