Table of Contents
International Journal of Computational Mathematics
Volume 2014, Article ID 659675, 17 pages
Research Article

Modelling Hepatotoxicity of Antiretroviral Therapy in the Liver during HIV Monoinfection

1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Education, Busitema University, P.O. Box 236, Tororo, Uganda
2Department of Mathematics, School of Physical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda

Received 13 May 2014; Revised 10 September 2014; Accepted 17 September 2014; Published 19 October 2014

Academic Editor: Baojun Song

Copyright © 2014 Hasifa Nampala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Liver related complications are currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. In HIV monoinfected individuals on therapy, liver injury has been associated with the use of antiretroviral agents as most of them exhibit some degree of toxicity. In this study we proposed a mathematical model with the aim of investigating hepatotoxicity of combinational therapy of antiretroviral drugs. Therapy efficacy and toxicity were incorporated in the model as dose-response functions. With the parameter values used in the study, protease inhibitors-based regimens were found to be more toxic than nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors-based regimens. In both regimens, the combination of stavudine and zidovudine was the most toxic baseline nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors followed by didanosine with stavudine. However, the least toxic combinations were zidovudine and lamivudine followed by didanosine and lamivudine. The study proposed that, under the same second line regimens, the most toxic first line combination gives the highest viral load and vice versa.